Females with vitreoretinal diseases show increased estradiol levels in vitreous body
Females with vitreoretinal diseases have significantly elevated levels of estradiol (E2) in the vitreous body compared with the serum, reveals a new study.
E2 measurements were collected from 71 patients with the following vitreoretinal diseases: idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM; 3 males, 11 females), idiopathic macular hole (MH; 3 males, 15 females), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; 10 males, 10 females) and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD; 3 males, 16 females).
Mean E2 concentrations across all diseases in the serum and vitreous body in males were 27.53±7.47 and 6.47±5.72 pg/mL, respectively. In females, corresponding concentrations were 8.33±6.62 and 16.83±5.37 pg/mL.
Males had significantly higher E2 levels in the serum than in the vitreous body, while females had significantly greater E2 concentrations in the vitreous body (p<0.001).
Testosterone (T) measurements were also collected from 61 patients with one of the four vitreoretinal diseases: ERM (12 males, 2 females), MH (2 males, 15 females), PDR (9 males, 4 females) and RD (6 males, 11 females).
Across all four diseases, mean T concentrations in the male vitreous body and serum were 0.15±0.02 and 4.70±1.69 ng/mL, respectively, yielding a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Corresponding values in females were 0.15±0.05 and 0.17±0.08 ng/mL, respectively.
Vitreous fluid samples were collected during vitreous surgery and subjected to electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay to measure hormone levels. Paired T-tests were used to quantify significant differences.
Future studies should focus on identifying the cells that produce E2 and T and the production of aromatase in the eye, both of which may explain the gender differences in E2 levels, according to researchers.