Excessive gestational weight gain does not increase risk of GDM

11 Sep 2021

Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy does not seem to correlate with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a recent study has found.

Researchers retrospectively analysed 8,352 women with singleton pregnancies, excluding those complicated by foetal anomalies, foetal death, and overt diabetes. GDM diagnosis was based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. Excessive GWG was defined either as weight gain above the 90th percentile or exceeding the recommendation by the Institute of Medicine (IOM).

A total of 1,129 participants (13.5 percent) were diagnosed with GDM. Those who did not develop GDM showed significantly higher GWG overall (13.0±4.1 vs 11.7±4.5 kg; p<0.001), during the second trimester (6.3±2.4 vs 5.9±2.6 kg; p<0.001), and after GDM (5.2±2.6 vs 4.1±2.9 kg; p<0.001).

However, the rate of excessive GWG, using either definition, did not differ between the GDM and non-GDM groups.

Multiple logistic regression analysis found that GWG >90th percentile during the first (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.96, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.70–1.32) and second (aOR, 1.21, 95 percent CI, 0.89–1.64) trimesters was not a significant risk factor for GDM, nor was excessive GWG as defined by IOM guidelines (first trimester: aOR, 1.06, 95 percent CI, 0.87–1.30; second trimester: aOR, 1.02, 95 percent CI, 0,82–1.27).

Excessive GWG by percentile weight gain (aOR, 1.24, 95 percent CI, 0.94–1.66) or IOM (aOR, 1.11, 95 percent CI, 0.92–1.35) before GDM screening was likewise unrelated to GDM risk.

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