Elevated dietary glycaemic index, load linked to higher CVD mortality risk

21 Feb 2022
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Dietary patterns with higher glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) appear to elevate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, according to a study on Chinese adults.

A team of investigators performed this analysis based on two prospective cohort studies in Shanghai, China. They collected dietary information from 59,770 men and 74,735 women using validated cohort-specific food frequency questionnaires. The hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality associated with GI and GL were calculated using Cox regression model.

Of the participants, 8,711 deaths in men and 10,501 deaths in women were recorded after median follow-up periods of 12.8 and 18.2 years, respectively. Dietary GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake correlated with an increased risk of CVD mortality after controlling for potential confounders (ptrend=0.025, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively).

Dietary GI was associated with reduced risks of total and cause-specific mortality in men in the second quartile (Q; all-cause mortality: HR, 0.89, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.84‒0.95 for Q2 vs Q1), while dietary GL correlated with a lower risk of cancer mortality but higher risk of CVD mortality.

In women, dietary GI contributed to increased all-cause (HR for Q4 vs Q1, 1.10, 95 percent CI, 1.04‒1.06), cancer (HR for Q4 vs Q1, 1.12, 95 percent CI, 1.02‒1.23), and CVD mortality (HR for Q4 vs Q1, 1.10, 95 percent CI, 1.00‒1.22).

“The association may vary for men and women, which needs further investigating in other Asian populations,” the investigators said.

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