Early-onset nephrolithiasis tied to frequent stone recurrences
Individuals who develop stones prior to age 20 years are at high risk of having frequent recurrences, with the risk even more pronounced in women, a study has found.
The analysis included 1,140 patients enrolled in the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter (ReSKU). Researchers collected data on patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI), family history, race, income, infectious symptoms and number of prior stone episodes. None of the patients had a history of cystinuria stones.
A total of 472 patients had recurrent stones, among whom 66 had their first episode prior to the age of 20 years. Univariate analysis showed that early stone formers were more likely to present at a younger age, be female and have more prior stone episodes at baseline.
Analysis controlled for potential confounders confirmed that early-onset nephrolithiasis was associated with female gender and frequent stone episodes. On the other hand, late stone formers were more likely to have greater BMI (>30 kg/m2).
The present data underscore the importance of close follow-up and surveillance of early stone formers due to the increased rate of recurrence, the researchers said, noting that adult stone databases focusing on early presentations may help improve understanding of paediatric stone disease.