Dyslipidaemia during pregnancy ups SGA risk
Dyslipidaemia and elevated biosynthesis of cholesterol, even during the first trimester of pregnancy, increase the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates, a recent study has found.
Maternal fasting blood samples were taken from 1,337 healthy mothers with singleton pregnancies during the first trimester. A total of 107 gave birth to SGA infants, defined as birthweight <10th percentile. Mothers in the SGA group had significantly lower weight (p=0.000) and body mass index (BMI; p=0.004) at blood sampling relative to non-SGA comparators.
In terms of lipid parameters, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in maternal serum samples at 10–14 weeks of pregnancy in those who gave birth to SGA infants (65 vs 69 mg/dL; p=0.022).
Similarly, the percentage of mothers <25th percentile of HDL-C was significantly higher in the SGA vs non-SGA group (36 percent vs 24 percent; p=0.007).
No such between-group differences were reported for the other lipid biomarkers assessed including total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and free fatty acids, among others.
Multiple regression analysis further confirmed that having HDL-C <25th percentile was a significant risk factor for SGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.261, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.218–4.200; p=0.01), as was having pregnancy-associated hypertension (aOR, 9.575, 95 percent CI, 1.651–55.252; p=0.012).
“In the current study, we showed that maternal dyslipidaemia and altered endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in early pregnancy were associated with subsequent risk of SGA,” the researchers said.