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Pearl Toh, 22 Oct 2020
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Roshini Claire Anthony, 13 Nov 2020

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Does smoking carry increased schizophrenia risk?

12 Apr 2020

Smoking may contribute to a higher incidence of schizophrenia, as suggested in a recent study.

Researchers used data from The Health Improvement Network primary care database and included 907,586 individuals. They recorded smoking status of participants within the first 12 months after study entry and followed them for a median of 6 years for the incidence of schizophrenia or nonaffective psychotic disorder, with the observation period commencing at 12 months after entry.

A total of 570,457 individuals (62.9 percent) were classified as nonsmokers over the 12-month observation period, while 266,396 (29.4 percent) had started smoking prior (smokers), and 70,733 (7.8 percent) started smoking during follow-up (smoking initiators). The mean age at first record of smoking was 21.1 years in males and 20.0 years in females.

In men, schizophrenia was diagnosed more frequently among smoking initiators (nonsmoker who became a smoker during the study) than nonsmokers (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.94, 95 percent CI, 1.29–2.91), and even higher in smokers (adjusted IRR, 3.32, 95 percent CI, 2.67–4.14).

In women, schizophrenia incidence was higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (adjusted IRR, 1.50, 95 percent CI, 1.06–2.12), but was similar in smoking initiators and nonsmokers.

For nonaffective psychosis, the pattern was similar for men but more evident in women where psychosis incidence was much higher in smoking initiators (adjusted IRR, 1.90, 95 percent CI, 1.40–2.56) and in smokers (adjusted IRR, 2.13, 95 percent CI, 1.76–2.57) than in nonsmokers.

The present data suggest that smoking may bear an increased risk of schizophrenia through as yet unknown pathways or shared genetic risk with the mental disorder and other nonaffective psychoses, the researchers said.

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Most Read Articles
Pearl Toh, 22 Oct 2020
The combination therapy comprising carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (KCd) is effective, with a tolerable safety profile, in an Asian cohort with high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) — thus providing a more economical alternative as a potential upfront regimen in resource-limited settings, according to leading experts during a myeloma education webinar.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 13 Nov 2020

Diabetes is a key risk factor for heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization in patients with or without diabetes. SGLT-2* inhibitors (SGLT-2is) have been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF (HHF) regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes.

Pearl Toh, 6 days ago
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be the mainstay of long-term asthma management — such is the key message of the latest Singapore ACE* Clinical Guidance (ACG) for asthma, released in October 2020.
Elvira Manzano, 17 Nov 2020
Invasive fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida species, are common in hospitalized, immunocompromised, or critically ill patients and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.