Dietary, physical activity interventions reduce gestational weight gain
Physical activity and dietary interventions decrease weight gain and the risk of cesarean section in pregnant women, according to a new meta-analysis.
Pooled individual participant data (IPD) from 33 studies (n=9,320) showed that gestational weight gain was significantly lower in patient who received dietary and physical activity interventions (summary mean difference, -0.70 kg; 95 percent CI, -0.92 to -0.48 kg).
Further analysis of IPD showed that diet alone (n=1,168; summary mean difference, -0.72; -1.48 to -0.91) and physical activity alone (n=2,915; summary mean difference, -0.73; -1.11 to -0.34) also reduced gestational weight gain in pregnant women.
Supplementing the above meta-analyses with data from studies that did not provide IPD, dietary and physical activity was more effective in reducing weight gain in pregnant women (n=17,530; summary mean difference, -1.1 kg; -1.46 to -0.74).
Including non-IPD studies also increased the benefit of diet alone (n=2,017; summary mean difference, -2.84; -4.77 to -0.91) on gestation weight gain. The effect of physical activity alone (n=7,355; summary mean difference, -0.72; -1.04 to -0.41) remained constant.
The risk of caesarean section was significantly reduced in patients that received the dietary and physical activity interventions (odds ratio [OR], 0.91; 0.83 to 0.99) compared with those who received routine care.
In contrast, the risks of gestational diabetes (OR, 0.89; 0.72 to 1.10), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (OR, 0.95; 0.78 to 1.16) and preterm delivery (OR, 0.94; 0.78 to 1.13) were not significantly different.
The meta-analysis included randomized trials that examined the effects of diet and physical activity interventions on pregnancy outcomes, including gestational weight gain. Studies were retrieved from online databases including Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews.