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Diabetes tied to periodontitis onset, progression

12 Jul 2018

Adult patients with diabetes are at increased risk of periodontitis onset and progression, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Researchers pooled data from 13 studies investigating the association between diabetes and periodontitis and presented at least two measurements of periodontal conditions (eg, attachment level, periodontal probing depth or alveolar bone height). The total population comprised 49,262 individuals, among whom 3,197 had diabetes.

Meta-analyses showed diabetes to be associated with an elevated risk of incidence or progression of periodontitis (relative risk, 1.86; 95 percent CI, 1.3–2.8). However, there is limited information regarding the association between diabetes and periodontal destruction.

Potential mechanisms linking diabetes to periodontitis onset and progression involve polymorphonuclear leukocytes permanence in tissues that occur following an insult. This leads to extensive tissue damage, which relates in turn to to faster progression of chronic inflammatory diseases in general. [J Immunol 2012;188:844-853]

The elevated prolonged inflammation process associated with chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients induces high proportions of apoptotic cells, resulting in periodontitis. Moreover, diabetes has been implicated in microvascular pathological alterations in the gingiva, which then result in increased periodontal inflammation. [Diabetes Care 2011;34:181-183]

Researchers highlighted the need for additional longitudinal studies with large sample sizes and information on periodontal destruction. These studies should estimate the cluster effect of common risk factors to determine their combined effect with blood glucose level on periodontitis onset and progression.

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Most Read Articles
Roshini Claire Anthony, 3 days ago

Patients with mild hypertension who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not appear to derive mortality or CVD benefit from antihypertensive treatments, raising questions on the need for treatment in this population, according to a recent study from England.

Pearl Toh, 6 days ago
A personalized computerized neurofeedback intervention for training attention and memory shows potential in cognitive training for healthy elderly men, who improved in cognitive performance after the training, although no significant improvements were seen in the overall study population.
4 days ago
The simple Atrial fibrillation (AF) Better Care (ABC) pathway holistically updates the integrated care for AF patients and helps reduce the risk of adverse outcomes such as all-cause mortality, stroke/major bleeding/cardiovascular death and hospitalization, according to a study.
Yesterday
Type 1 diabetes impairs cognitive functioning in children, and this effect is exacerbated by extreme glycaemic levels, according to a recent meta-analysis.