Developmental difficulties, sensory defects among children with congenital rubella syndrome
Researchers followed 41 children with CRS, after a large rubella outbreak that occurred in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, in 2011, in order to evaluate the long-term effects of CRS on developmental, ophthalmological, and otological outcomes. By October 2013, 14 participants had died and six could no longer be traced. A total of 21 children were thus followed-up between October 2013 and October 2015. Ophthalmological and otoscopic examinations and automated auditory brainstem response tests were performed on all 21 children in 2013 and were repeated in 16 children in 2015. A test of visual acuity was also performed in 2015.
About, 62 percent (n=13) of children were diagnosed with hearing impairment, while 33 percent (n=7) of children had functional ophthalmological problems other than pigmentary retinopathy. Then, 95 percent (n=19) of children failed in at least one area of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and/or Denver II test in 2013 and/or 2015, and were suspected of having developmental problems. Communication difficulties (ASQ communication domain and Denver II language area failures) were frequently noted, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was suspected in 7 participants in 2013, according to the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. By 2015, most children continued to experience communication difficulties and a greater proportion failed in the problem-solving and personal-social domains of the ASQ. Two children were diagnosed with severe ASD in 2015.