Most Read Articles
Vincent YT Cheung, 01 Dec 2015

Ultrasonography has been widely used as a routine component of antenatal care. During the assessment of the foetus and the placenta, an adnexal mass may be discovered at the time of the ultrasound examination. Occasionally, an adnexal mass can also be suspected either on physical examination or as a result of clinical symptoms.
26 Feb 2017
Placement of cervical pessary in women with short cervices and singleton pregnancies does not lower the risk of having preterm births, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
Asykin Ismail, Dr. Jazlan Joosoph, 17 Mar 2018
Obstetrician and gynaecologist at Raffles Hospital, Dr Jazlan Joosoph, shares the lowdown on the condition, diagnosis and treatment options.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 07 Sep 2016

Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) mutations Y537S and D538G are associated with reduced overall survival (OS) in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer, according to findings of a secondary analysis of the BOLERO-2* clinical trial.

Decline in mammographic density greatest during menopause

17 Jul 2017

Age-associated declines in mammographic density (MD), while occurring pre- and postmenopausally, are most pronounced during menopause, a new study reports.

This trend is consistent worldwide and across a wide variety of ethnic and geographical groups suggesting an underlying innate biological mechanism.

Analysis of 11,423 women (35 to 85 years of age) showed that postmenopausal women had lower percent MD (PD; difference, -0.46 cm; 95 percent CI, -0.53 to -0.39) and lower dense area (difference, -0.55 cm; -0.65 to -0.45) compared with premenopausal women of the same age.

On the other hand, nondense area (difference, 0.32 cm; 0.21 to 0.43) was larger in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women of the same age.

In premenopausal women, every 10-year increase in age was associated with decreases in PD (difference, -0.24; -0.34 to -0.14) and dense area (difference, -0.27; -0.41 to -0.14). Changes in PD and dense area were not associated with changes in breast area.

PD (difference, -0.38; -0.44 to -0.33) and dense area (difference, -0.32; -0.39 to -0.24) also decreased in postmenopausal women with every 10-year increase in age. In contrast to premenopausal women, a corresponding increase in breast area (difference, 0.34; 0.24 to 0.39) was observed in postmenopausal women.

While there were variations in the trend when the women were grouped according to reproductive factors (parity and age at first birth), there were no significant variations across the different ethnic groups except for larger decreases in PD in Malay and South Asian women.

Information was retrieved from the International Consortium on Mammographic Density. Participants were free of breast cancer and were categorized as pre- (n=4,534) or postmenopausal (n=6,481). MD was measured using the Cumulus method.

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Most Read Articles
Vincent YT Cheung, 01 Dec 2015

Ultrasonography has been widely used as a routine component of antenatal care. During the assessment of the foetus and the placenta, an adnexal mass may be discovered at the time of the ultrasound examination. Occasionally, an adnexal mass can also be suspected either on physical examination or as a result of clinical symptoms.
26 Feb 2017
Placement of cervical pessary in women with short cervices and singleton pregnancies does not lower the risk of having preterm births, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
Asykin Ismail, Dr. Jazlan Joosoph, 17 Mar 2018
Obstetrician and gynaecologist at Raffles Hospital, Dr Jazlan Joosoph, shares the lowdown on the condition, diagnosis and treatment options.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 07 Sep 2016

Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) mutations Y537S and D538G are associated with reduced overall survival (OS) in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer, according to findings of a secondary analysis of the BOLERO-2* clinical trial.