Coffee drinkers at low risk of incident chronic kidney disease
Higher intake levels of coffee appear to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
A total of 14,209 ARIC participants aged 45–64 years completed food frequency questionnaires to determine coffee consumption. Nineteen percent almost never drank coffee, 21 percent drank <1 cup/day, 25 percent drank ≥1 to <2 cups/day, 15 percent drank ≥2 to <3 cups/day and 19 percent drank ≥3 or more cups per day. Coffee intake levels per day were more likely to be higher in men, whites and current smokers.
During a median follow-up of 24 years, 3,845 individuals developed CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, accompanied by ≥25-percent decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, CKD-related hospitalization or death, or end-stage renal disease).
Compared with never-consumers, individuals with higher coffee intake levels had reduced risk of incident CKD (<1 cup/day: hazard ratio [HR], 0.90; 95 percent CI, 0.82–0.99; 1 to <2 cups/day: HR, 0.90; 0.82–0.99; 2 to <3 cups/day: HR, 0.87; 0.77-0.97; and ≥3 cups/day: HR, 0.84; 0.75–0.94).
Furthermore, each additional cup of coffee consumed per day lowered the risk of incident CKD by 3 percent (HR, 0.97; 0.95–0.99; p<0.001).
The present data support the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which recommend incorporating three to five cups of coffee per day into a healthy lifestyle, researchers said. [http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/]
However, the study might be limited by self-reported coffee consumption and observational design. More studies are needed to evaluate whether coffee preparation methods, and sugar and milk added to coffee influence the renal protection obtained from consuming coffee, researchers added.