Coffee consumption confers health benefits
Drinking coffee is not only safe but also seems to confer various health benefits such as risk reductions in mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer, a recent study suggests.
The research team performed an umbrella review of 218 meta-analyses that investigated the impact of coffee consumption on any health outcome. Only interventional and observational studies were eligible; studies that focused on genetic polymorphisms for coffee metabolism were excluded.
The databases of Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CINAHL were accessed for the current study.
Compared with no coffee consumption per day, all-cause mortality was maximally reduced with the consumption of three cups a day (relative risk [RR], 0.83; 95 percent CI, 0.83 to 0.88). Even at the highest exposure level of seven cups per day, all-cause mortality risk was reduced (RR, 0.90; 0.85 to 0.96).
In terms of cardiovascular risk, coffee drinkers had a 19-percent lower risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with nondrinkers (RR, 0.81; 0.72 to 0.90). Risks of mortality from coronary heart disease (RR, 0.84; 0.71 to 0.99) and stroke (RR, 0.70; 0.80 to 0.90) were also lower for drinkers.
Cancer incidence was also found to be reduced in individuals with high coffee consumption levels compared to nondrinkers (RR, 0.82; 0.74 to 0.89), with one extra cup per day also resulting in lower cancer incidences (RR, 0.97; 0.96 to 0.98).
While high coffee consumption was protective against many different cancers such as skin, oral, prostate and endometrial cancers, high consumption levels also increased lung cancer risk (odds ratio, 1.59; 1.26 to 2.00).