Coeliac disease linked to depression among young T1D patients
Among young people type 1 diabetes (T1D), those with coeliac disease (CD) are also more likely to have depression, according to a study, suggesting that the double burden of T1D and CD may increase susceptibility to depression.
The study included 79,067 participants aged 6–20 years who had at least 6 months of diabetes duration. Of these, 73,699 had T1D only (reference group), 3,379 (4.3 percent) had CD, 1,877 (2.4 percent) had comorbid depression, and 112 (0.1 percent) had both CD and depression.
Compared with the reference group, patients with CD and those with depression (with or without additional CD) were older (p<0.001 for all). There were more women than men in the three CD/depression groups (p<0.001 for all), while pump usage was more common in T1D + CD and in T1D + depression groups (p<0.001 both) than in the reference group.
Multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant association between CD and depression (adjusted odds ratio, 1.25, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.53).
There were other notable differences observed among the patient groups. HbA1c was higher in the T1D + depression (9.0 percent) and T1D + CD + depression (8.9 percent) groups than in the reference group (8.2 percent; p<0.001 for both comparisons).
Meanwhile, comorbid autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, schizophrenia, and eating disorders were more common in the T1D + CD + depression versus the reference group (p<0.001).
The findings indicate that having T1D and additional CD is a heavier burden than having only one chronic disease. Regular screening for CD and depression may help improve outcomes for these patients.