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Carbohydrate restriction bests low-fat diets for managing dyslipidaemia in high-risk populations

10 Jan 2019

A dietary strategy of carbohydrate restriction proves superior to low-fat diets in terms of improving lipid markers in individuals with cardiometabolic risk, owing to its strong effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides, according to a meta-analysis.

Researchers searched multiple online databases for large randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n=100) evaluating the effects of consuming very low, low and moderate carbohydrate, higher fat diets vs high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets for ≥6 months on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other lipid markers in overweight/obese adults.

The meta-analysis included eight RCTs representing 1,633 participants, 818 in the carbohydrate-restricted diet group and 815 in the low-fat diet group. Pooled data revealed that carbohydrate-restricted diets yielded no significant effect on LDL-C after 6, 12 and 24 months. On the other hand, low-fat diets showed a more favourable result (0.07 mmol/L; 95 percent CI, 0.02–0.13; p=0.009), although this was clinically insignificant.

Results for HDL-C and plasma TG at 6 and 12 months favoured carbohydrate-restricted diets (0.08 mmol/L; 0.06–0.11; p<1×10−5 and −0.13 mmol/L; −0.19 to −0.08; p<1×10−5, respectively). These beneficial effects were more pronounced in the subgroup of participants with very-low carbohydrate levels (<50 g/d; 0.12 mmol/L; 0.10–0.14; p<1×10−5 and −0.19 mmol/L; −0.26 to −0.12; p=0.02, respectively).

The present data suggest that carbohydrate-restricted diets should be considered for the prevention and management of dyslipidaemia in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease, such as those with obesity/overweight, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, researchers said.

Considering the epidemics of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, researchers highlighted a need for new nutritional approaches and more focused innovative interventions in order to achieve lasting behavioural changes.

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Most Read Articles
05 May 2019
Statins, when taken before cardiac arrest, improve 1-year survival outcomes, a recent study has found.
09 May 2019
Cognitive impairments and delirium are frequent postoperative occurrences in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, according to a new meta-analysis.
Tristan Manalac, 29 May 2019
Coronary artery disease is prevalent among patients who have undergone coronary angiography, according to a new Philippine study presented at the recently concluded 2019 Congress of the Asian Pacific Society of Cardiology (APSC 2019). However, the obtained rates remain lower than that in other Asian countries.
22 May 2019
About one of 10 patients with myocardial infarction (MI) at a young age present with clinically defined familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), reports a study. Furthermore, only two-thirds of FH patients have been discharged on high-intensity statin therapy, and several present with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at 1 year.