Calcium channel blockers may raise prostate cancer risk
Men who use calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are at risk of developing prostate cancer, and the risk increases with the duration of CCB exposure, according to the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Researchers searched multiple online databases for relevant studies and applied fixed effects models to examine the association between CCB use and the risk of prostate cancer. They also assessed the quality using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale and quantified between-study heterogeneity.
A total of 19 studies involving 1,418,407 patients were included the meta-analysis. These studies were a mix of cohort studies, nested case–control studies, and case–control studies. Pooled data showed that CCB use conferred about a 7-percent increase in the overall risk of prostate cancer (risk ratio [RR], 1.08, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.11; p<0.00001; hazard ratio, 1.07, 95 percent CI, 1.02–1.13; p=0.008).
Moreover, the results of subgroup analysis revealed that the longer the exposure to CCB, the greater the risk of developing prostate cancer. The risk increased by 8 percent among CCB users of <5 years (RR, 1.08, 95 percent CI, 1.04–1.12; p=0.0001) and by 13 percent among users of 5–10 years (RR, 1.13; 95 percent CI, 1.04–1.23; p=0.003).Conversely, the risk increase associated with CCB use might be attenuated in the presence of TMPRSS2:ERG or T2E (fusion gene).