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Azithromycin eases RV-induced airway inflammation in lung allograft recipients

25 Nov 2019

It appears that human rhinovirus (RV) can infect both the upper and lower airway epithelial cells (AEC), which can lead to cell death and inflammation, according to a recent study, noting that prophylactic treatment with azithromycin can lessen these harmful responses.

RV infection brought about significant cytotoxicity in both large and small AEC and caused a similar apoptotic response in both regions. A significant increase in receptor expression occurred in the large AEC only after viral infection. Moreover, there was an increase in viral replication in both large and small AEC, but it was not significantly different.

Prophylactic treatment with azithromycin led to a reduction in viral replication and in the production of inflammatory cytokines following infection.

“Findings provide further support for the prophylactic prescription of azithromycin to minimize the impact of RV infection,” the investigators said.

This study obtained matched large and small AEC from five lung allograft recipients. Primary cultures were established, and monolayers were infected with RV1b over time with varying viral titre. The investigators then examined cell viability, receptor expression, viral copy number, apoptotic induction and inflammatory cytokine production at each region. Finally, they assessed the effect of azithromycin on viral replication, induction of apoptosis and inflammation.

“RV is a common upper and lower respiratory pathogen in lung allograft recipients causing respiratory tract exacerbation and contributing towards allograft dysfunction and long‐term lung decline,” the investigators noted.

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Most Read Articles
29 Jul 2020
Adjunctive perampanel appears to be safe and effective for long-term treatment of patients with tonic‐clonic seizures, according to a posthoc analysis.
27 Apr 2020
Long-term use of brivaracetam as an adjunctive treatment is well tolerated and effective in patients with focal seizures or primary generalized seizures, as shown in a study.
01 Apr 2019
Perampanel is safe and effective for treating refractory focal seizures in both Asian and non‐Asian populations, a study has found.
Elvira Manzano, 20 Jun 2018
A higher proportion of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experienced improvements in joint and skin symptoms with baricitinib 4 mg once daily vs placebo in a phase II randomized, double-blind, global study.