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Apolipoprotein profiling may enhance CV risk assessment

10 Oct 2018

Novel methods can greatly enhance the accuracy of lipoprotein profiling, thus improving cardiovascular (CV) risk prediction.

“Currently, we just monitor lipid classes, namely total cholesterol, triglycerides [TG], LDL-cholesterol [LDL-C] and HDL-cholesterol, focusing on quantity rather than molecular composition. Using mass spectrometry of plasma samples, we can identify proteins directly and more precisely,” said Professor Manuel Mayr of King's College London, UK. “The technique, called lipidomics, has shown that TG species containing saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids are associated with the highest CV risk.” [Circulation 2014;129:1821-1831; Am J Clin Nutr 2017;106;973-983]

Apolipoprotein profiling by mass spectrometry has demonstrated that apoB-100, apo C-I, apo C-II and apoL-I are positively associated with CV disease (CVD). Importantly, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) carries not only apoB-100 (the main apolipoprotein on LDL-C), but also those other high-risk apolipoprotein species, suggesting a remaining high CV risk beyond LDL-C. [J Am Coll Cardiol 2017;69:789-900; J Am Coll Cardiol 2018;71;620-632]

“The strong association of certain TG species and VLDL-associated apolipoproteins with incident CVD supports the concept of targeting TG-rich lipoproteins to further reduce CVD risk in the statin era where LDL-C is already very low,” he suggested.

Proteomics studies have also identified several inflammation-related lipid species in atherosclerotic plaques. [J Clin Invest 2017;127:1546-1560] “Apolipoprotein constituents of LDL seem to be associated with inflammation and symptomatic plaques. This inflammatory signature seems to be driving the progression of atherosclerosis to manifest CVD, supporting the concept of targeting inflammation on top of lipid lowering,” noted Mayr.

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Most Read Articles
Stephen Padilla, 28 Nov 2017
A dietary pattern rich in fresh and dried fruits, nuts and seeds, vegetable oils, and low-fat dairy products appears to lower the incidence rate of insulin resistance, according to an Iran study.
Pearl Toh, 20 Apr 2018
The investigational oral synthetic androgen dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU) suppresses serum testosterone levels to near castrate levels and appears safe when taken once daily for a month, showing potential as a male contraceptive pill, according to a study.
02 Aug 2018
Men and women who regularly eat seafood appear to have higher sexual intercourse frequency (SIF) and fecundity in a large prospective cohort of couples attempting pregnancy, suggests a study.
12 Apr 2018
In the context of low-glycaemic index (GI) dietary patterns, eating pasta does not contribute to adiposity and may even reduce body weight and body mass index (BMI) compared with higher-GI dietary patterns, a recent study has found.