Apnoea hypopnoea index during REM sleep tied to diabetic retinopathy
A recent study has shown that apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is independently linked to diabetic retinopathy (DR) and appears to be a risk factor for DR.
An independent association was found between REM-AHI quartile and DR (relative to Q1: Q2 odds ratio [OR], 3.887; 95 percent CI, 0.737–20.495; Q3 OR, 9.467; 1.883–47.588; Q4 OR, 12.898; 2.008–82.823; p=0.024), but no association was observed between non-REM-AHI and DR (p=0.119).
Continuous REM-AHI was likewise independently tied to DR (OR, 2.875; 1.224–6.752; p=0.015), but non-REM-AHI was not (p=0.107). Furthermore, AHI was shown to be independently correlated with DR when controlling for several known risk factors for DR (p=0.043).
This study sought to determine the association between REM-AHI and DR by including 131 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent all-night polysomnography with ≥30 minutes of REM sleep and were free of heart failure or active lung disease and had not yet been treated for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The authors performed logistic regression analysis to examine the effect of REM-AHI on the prevalence of DR adjusted by several known risk factors for DR.
“Recent studies based on home sleep apnoea testing (HSAT) reported the potential association of sleep disordered breathing, such as OSA, with DR. A few studies showed that the REM-AHI is associated with glycated haemoglobin and hypertension, two known risk factors for DR,” the authors said.
Prior to this, no studies have examined the association between REM-AHI and DR because previous studies were based on HSAT, they added.