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08 Dec 2017
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants did not reduce the odds of mortality or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a recent US study found.
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Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with children born to normal-weight mothers, according to data from a review and meta-analysis.
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Antibiotic helps prevent voiding cystourethrogram-acquired UTI in children

25 Sep 2017

Treatment with antibiotic results in significant reduction in voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)-associated urinary tract infection (UTI), especially in children with abnormal ultrasound scans, a study has found.

In an open-label trial, 120 children who were aged 2 months to 5 years and undergoing VCUG were randomly assigned to the group treated with antibiotic (n=72; median age 10 months; 68 percent male) or to the group that did not receive treatment (n=48; median age 7 months; 71 percent male). The antibiotic group received cephalexin if <6 months or cotrimoxazole if >6 months old a day prior to VCUG and continued for 1 day after the procedure.

The primary endpoint was incidence of VCUG-associated UTI. Urine was evaluated on day 3 after VCUG, and UTI was defined as significant growth of a single organism in a symptomatic child.

In the cohort, the most common indications for VCUG were history of UTI (43 children had first UTI in infancy; 49 had recurrent UTI) and congenital anomaly of kidney and urinary tract without any UTI (n=28).

Compared with the antibiotic group, the no-treatment group had a significantly higher proportion of children who developed post-VCUG UTI (17 vs 1.4 percent; p=0.01; odds ratio [OR], 14.2; 95 percent CI, 1.7 to 117).

On multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, an abnormal pre-VCUG ultrasound scan emerged as a significant independent risk factor for post-VCUG UTI (p=0.02; OR, 9.51; 1.43 to 63.4).

The number needed to treat with antibiotic to prevent one episode of post-VCUG UTI was 6.5, which dropped to 4 if antibiotic was restricted to children with abnormal pre-VCUG ultrasound scan.

One of the most common fluoroscopic investigations performed in paediatric radiology (up to 40 percent of all fluoroscopic-guided procedures in some centres), VCUG remains the gold standard for identifying vesicoureteric reflux and demonstrating urethral anatomy. Among the known complications of the procedure, VCUG-acquired UTI is considered an important concern as the condition has been associated with urosepsis and even death. [Pediatr Radiol 2001;1:238–46]

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Most Read Articles
08 Dec 2017
Adults born very preterm, whether with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), appear to have anatomically smaller airways compared with their counterparts who were born full-term, a recent study suggests.
Audrey Abella, 31 Jan 2017
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants did not reduce the odds of mortality or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a recent US study found.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 13 Oct 2016
Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with children born to normal-weight mothers, according to data from a review and meta-analysis.
07 Dec 2017
Lactobacilli bacteria appear to be less abundant in the guts of male infants born to asthmatic mothers, a recent study shows. On the other hand, Bacteroidaceae are more abundant in the guts of female infants.