Age predicts moderate anxiety, depression in pregnant women
Moderate anxiety and depression (A&D) are common among pregnant women and are linked to age, reports a new study from Pakistan.
An Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), a 14-item questionnaire that generates depression and anxiety scores, was administered to 752 pregnant women from several gynaecology outpatient departments. Those on antidepressants or with previous histories of A&D were excluded.
Other relevant information, such as sociodemographic and economic factors, were also collected by way of structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of A&D, while the Chi Square test was performed to identify correlations among the factors.
Of the participants, 65.2 percent (n=490) reported feeling tense from time to time. Age (p<0.001) and number of children (p<0.0011) were significantly associated with the said response and moderately positively correlated with each other.
Similarly, age (p=0.006), number of children (p<0.001) and monthly income (p=0.001) were significantly associated with cheerfulness during pregnancy. Majority (52.0 percent; n=391) of the respondents gave a “not often” response to feeling cheerful during pregnancy.
Age (p=0.007) and monthly income (p=0.001) were slightly positively associated with sudden panic during pregnancy, while age (p=0.003), education (p<0.001) and monthly income (p=0.004) were significantly linked to being able to enjoy a good book or television programme during pregnancy.
After dichotomizing the HADS scores to show those with and without stress/anxiety, logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of A&D (adjusted odds ratio, 1.23; 95 percent CI, 1.13 to 1.62; p<0.001).