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Adherence to Mediterranean diet helps lower risk of type 2 diabetes

02 Feb 2019

An inverse association exists between the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), suggests a recent study.

This study examined the longitudinal association between the Mediterranean diet and T2D risk in Iranian men and women. A 168-item food frequency questionnaire was used to measure diet in 2,139 adults (free of T2D; aged 20–70 years).

Participants received scores between 0 and 8 points according to the traditional MDS. The authors reported multivariate hazard ratio (HR) and 95 percent CI for the association between MDS and T2D, with adjustment of diabetic risk score (DRS) and dietary energy intakes.

A total of 143 events were recorded during follow-up. Participants with higher intakes of fish/seafoods, legumes, nuts and monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids ratio had a lower risk of T2D. When adjusted for confounders, adherence to the Mediterranean diet showed an inverse relationship with T2D (HR, 0.48; 95 percent CI, 0.27–0.83).

In a recent meta-analysis of prospective studies and randomized controlled trials that assessed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality, findings showed a beneficial role of the said diet on CVD prevention in populations inclusive of individuals with diabetes. [Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019;24:1-21]

“T2D is fast increasing in recent decades. Limited prospective studies are available on Mediterranean diet protective effect against T2D development,” the authors noted.

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