5 modifiable risk factors independently tied to incident kidney stones
There are five modifiable risk factors, including body mass index, fluid intake, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) style diet, dietary calcium intake and sugar sweetened beverage intake, responsible for more than 50 percent of incident kidney stones, according to a study that involves three large prospective cohorts.
Researchers analysed data from three large cohorts, namely the Health Professional Follow-Up Study (HPFS) cohort and the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I and II cohorts. Validated questionnaires were used to gather information.
Researchers also used Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders to assess the relationship of each risk factor with the development of incident kidney stones and to calculate the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent for modifiable risk factors.
Overall, there were 192,126 participants included in the analysis. A total of 6,449 individuals developed incident kidney stone during a total of 3,259,313 person-years of follow-up. All modifiable risk factors independently correlated with incident stones in each cohort.
The population attributable fraction ranged from 4.4 to 26.0 percent for a higher intake of sugar sweetened beverages and a lower fluid intake, respectively. For all five modifiable risk factors combined, the population attributable fraction was 57.0 percent in HPFS, 55.2 percent in NHS I and 55.1 percent in NHS II.
The number needed to prevent during 10 years ranged from 67 for lower fluid intake to 556 for lower dietary calcium intake.
“Assuming a causal relation, our estimates suggest that preventive measures aimed at reducing those factors could substantially decrease the burden of kidney stones in the general population,” researchers said.