tonsillopharyngitis%20-%20acute%20(pediatric)
TONSILLOPHARYNGITIS - ACUTE (PEDIATRIC)
Tonsillopharyngitis is the inflammation of the tonsils and pharynx.
Etiologies include bacterial and viral pathogens.
Sore throat is the most common presenting symptom in older children.

Definition

  • Inflammation of the tonsils & pharynx

Etiology

  • Includes bacterial (group A β-hemolytic streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Fusobacterium sp, etc) & viral (influenza, adenovirus, coronavirus, rhinovirus, etc) pathogens 

Signs and Symptoms

  • Sore throat is the most common presenting symptom in older children
Sore throat with complications
  • Trismus
  • Inability to swallow liquids
  • Increased salivation or drooling
  • Peritonsillar edema
  • Deviation of uvula
  • Asymmetry & forward displacement of the soft palate

Signs of upper airway obstruction

  • Stridor
  • Air hunger
  • Respiratory distress
  • Toxic appearance
  • Cyanosis
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) infection
  • Sore throat/tonsillar swelling/exudates
  • Swollen anterior cervical nodes
  • Fever >38ºC (low grade fever <38°C in children <3 years old)
  • Lack of cough, conjunctivitis, rhinorrhea, hoarseness
  • Symptoms in a patient aged 5-15 years

Viral etiology

  • Rhinorrhea
  • Cough
  • Hoarseness
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Diarrhea
  • Oropharyngeal ulceration
  • Muscle & joint pain
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21 Mar 2018
During the Kuala Lumpur International Neonatology Conference held in conjunction with the World Prematurity Day 2017, Dato Dr Musa Mohd Nordin spoke on the importance of immunizing children with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine. He highlighted the role of Hexaxim® as a fully liquid, ready-to-use, 6-in-1 (including hepatitis B) vaccine for the primary and booster vaccinations of infants and toddlers. Meanwhile, Dr Yong Junina Fadzil discussed the benefits of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) in providing children with broader protection against influenza B viruses.