Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail bed, nail plate or both. It is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophyte molds and yeast.
Tinea unguium or dermatophytic onychomycosis is a dermatophyte infection of the nail more commonly affecting the toenails than the fingernails.
It is usually asymptomatic and patients first consult for cosmetic reasons.
It is suspected if there are changes in the 3rd or 5th toenail, involvement of the 1st and 5th toenails on the same foot and unilateral nail changes.
Hepatitis D virus infection is highly prevalent in subgroups of individuals with intravenous drug use and those with high-risk sexual behaviour, study has reported. Its prevalence has also increased twofold over time in patients infected with hepatitis B virus.
The nucleotide analogue tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is associated with mild renal impairment in a minority of patients being treated for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a study by the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has shown.