Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail bed, nail plate or both. It is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophyte molds and yeast.
Tinea unguium or dermatophytic onychomycosis is a dermatophyte infection of the nail more commonly affecting the toenails than the fingernails.
It is usually asymptomatic and patients first consult for cosmetic reasons.
It is suspected if there are changes in the 3rd or 5th toenail, involvement of the 1st and 5th toenails on the same foot and unilateral nail changes.
In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), varicella appears to be associated with high mortality and morbidity, a recent Singapore study has shown. Researchers thus recommend vaccination in ESRD patients seronegative for varicella.
Individuals using opioid analgesics may be at an elevated risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, particularly those using long-acting, high-potency, immunosuppressive, or high-dose opioids, results of a nested case-control study show.
Apart from being tolerable and feasible, pre- and post-transplantation hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments prevent HCV infection in non–HCV-infected recipients (ie, HCV D+/R− transplantation) of kidneys, a recent open-label nonrandomized trial in a single centre has shown.
Use of antiviral treatment for colonic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection significantly improves short- and long-term surgery-free survival in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), according to the results of a small-scale study.