Most commonly presents as a painless testicular mass
Occurs most often in young & middle-aged men, ie age 15-40 yr
Highly treatable disease w/ a high cure rate; survival rate in 5 yr is >95%
Testicular primary germ cell tumors (GCT) coming from the malignant transformation of primordial germ cells make up 95% of all testicular cancer; approximately 5% are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCT) & are found midline in the body, eg cerebrum, mediastinum or retroperitoneum
Pathognomonic for GCT is the isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12 [i(12p)]
Risk factors include:
Cryptorchidism – abdominal cryptorchid testes have a higher risk than inguinal cryptorchid testes
Family history of testicular cancer in 1st-degree relatives (father or brother)
Personal history of testicular cancer
Presence of contralateral tumor or testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN)
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