Testicular cancer is a rare neoplasm that arises from the testis. It commonly presents as a painless testicular mass.

It has high prevalence in young and middle-aged men in the age of 15-40 years old.

It is a highly treatable disease with a high cure rate.

Testicular primary germ cell tumors coming from the malignant transformation of primordial germ cells make up 95% of all testicular cancer.



  • Most commonly presents as a painless testicular mass
  • Occurs most often in young & middle-aged men, ie age 15-40 yr
  • Highly treatable disease w/ a high cure rate; survival rate in 5 yr is >95%


  • Testicular primary germ cell tumors (GCT) coming from the malignant transformation of primordial germ cells make up 95% of all testicular cancer; approximately 5% are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCT) & are found midline in the body, eg cerebrum, mediastinum or retroperitoneum
  • Pathognomonic for GCT is the isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12 [i(12p)]

Risk Factors

  • Risk factors include:
    • Cryptorchidism – abdominal cryptorchid testes have a higher risk than inguinal cryptorchid testes
    • Family history of testicular cancer in 1st-degree relatives (father or brother)
    • Personal history of testicular cancer
    • Presence of contralateral tumor or testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN)
    • Klinefelter’s syndrome
    • Testicular dysgenesis
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