testicular%20cancer
TESTICULAR CANCER

Testicular cancer is a rare neoplasm that arises from the testis. It commonly presents as a painless testicular mass.

It has high prevalence in young and middle-aged men in the age of 15-40 years old.

It is a highly treatable disease with a high cure rate.

Testicular primary germ cell tumors coming from the malignant transformation of primordial germ cells make up 95% of all testicular cancer.

 

Testicular%20cancer Signs and Symptoms

Introduction

  • Most commonly presents as a painless testicular mass
  • Occurs most often in young & middle-aged men, ie age 15-40 yr
  • Highly treatable disease w/ a high cure rate; survival rate in 5 yr is >95%

Pathophysiology

  • Testicular primary germ cell tumors (GCT) coming from the malignant transformation of primordial germ cells make up 95% of all testicular cancer; approximately 5% are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCT) & are found midline in the body, eg cerebrum, mediastinum or retroperitoneum
  • Pathognomonic for GCT is the isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12 [i(12p)]

Risk Factors

  • Risk factors include:
    • Cryptorchidism – abdominal cryptorchid testes have a higher risk than inguinal cryptorchid testes
    • Family history of testicular cancer in 1st-degree relatives (father or brother)
    • Personal history of testicular cancer
    • Presence of contralateral tumor or testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN)
    • Klinefelter’s syndrome
    • Testicular dysgenesis
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2020
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa, 08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Pearl Toh, 26 Nov 2020
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be the mainstay of long-term asthma management — such is the key message of the latest Singapore ACE* Clinical Guidance (ACG) for asthma, released in October 2020.
Audrey Abella, 4 days ago
A pilot telemedicine initiative may be an alternative for facilitating delivery of intravenous iron (IVI) for individuals requiring iron supplementation.