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SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder characterized by formation of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens and immune-complex formation.
It can be suspected when ≥2 organ systems are involved.
It is predominantly diagnosed in females of childbearing age, rarely diagnosed before 8 years old.
Clinical presentation varies in different patients and the disease activity varies over time in a single patient. Majority of patients have arthralgia of the hand.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
  • Drug-induced lupus
  • Early rheumatoid arthritis
  • Fibromyalgia w/ positive antinuclear antibody (ANA)
  • Idiopathic athrombocytopenic purpura
  • Scleroderma
  • Sjogren’s syndrome
  • Systemic sclerosis
  • Undifferentiated connective tissue disease
  • Vasculitis
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07 Mar 2018
The use of trabecular bone score (TBS) may be helpful in evaluating osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), as it is associated with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and severity of sacroiliitis in young male patients with AS, suggests a recent study.
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An expert consensus has developed evidence-based recommendations, which aims to provide crucial guidance to support family planning, assisted reproduction, pregnancy and menopause in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).