systemic%20lupus%20erythematosus%20(pediatric)
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (PEDIATRIC)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder characterized by formation of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens and immune-complex formation.
It can be suspected when ≥2 organ systems are involved.
It is predominantly diagnosed in females of childbearing age, rarely diagnosed before 8 years old.
Clinical presentation varies in different patients and the disease activity varies over time in a single patient. Majority of patients have arthralgia of the hand.

Introduction

  • Predominantly diagnosed in females of childbearing age
    • Rarely diagnosed before 8 years old

Definition

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder characterized by formation of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens & immune-complex formation
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be suspected when ≥2 organ systems are involved

Signs and Symptoms

  • Clinical presentation varies in different patients & the disease activity varies over time in a single patient
    • Majority of patients have arthralgia of the hand
    • Most frequent manifestations in children include fever, rash, alopecia, arthritis & renal involvement
    • Compared w/ adults, children have a higher incidence of malar rash, anemia, leukopenia, neurologic & renal involvement


Clinical features of SLE

  • Cardiac
    • Endocarditis
    • Myocarditis
    • Pericarditis
  • Constitutional
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Wt loss
  • Dermatological
    • Alopecia
    • Butterfly rash
    • Mucous membrane lesion
    • Photosensitivity
    • Purpura
    • Raynaud’s phenomenon
    • Urticaria
    • Vasculitis
  • Gastrointestinal
    • Abdominal pain
    • Nausea, vomiting (N/V)
  • Hematologic
    • Anemia
    • Leukopenia
    • Thrombocytopenia
  • Musculoskeletal
    • Arthralgia
    • Arthritis
    • Myositis
  • Neuropsychiatric
    • Cranial neuropathies
    • Organic brain syndrome
    • Peripheral neuropathies
    • Psychosis
    • Seizures
    • Transverse myelitis 
  • Pulmonary
    • Pleurisy
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Pulmonary parenchyma
  • Renal
    • Casts
    • Hematuria
    • Nephrotic syndrome
    • Proteinuria
  • Reticuloendothelial
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Lymphadenopathy
    • Splenomegaly
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