systemic%20lupus%20erythematosus%20(pediatric)
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (PEDIATRIC)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder characterized by formation of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens and immune-complex formation.
Clinical presentation varies in different patients and the disease activity varies over time in a single patient. Childhood-onset SLE has a greater disease severity and earlier disease damage than in adults with SLE.

Systemic%20lupus%20erythematosus%20(pediatric) Signs and Symptoms

Definition

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder characterized by formation of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens and immune-complex formation
    • SLE can be diagnosed with a single organ involvement such as lupus nephritis
  • Childhood-onset SLE (cSLE) has an estimated worldwide incidence of 0.3-2.2 per 100,000 children-years with prevalence ranging from 3.3-9.7 per 100,000 children and adolescents 
    • Occurrence is rare before 5 years of age 
  • Females are more often affected than males
  • Clinical presentation varies in different patients and the disease activity varies over time in a single patient
    • Most frequent manifestations in children include fever, rash, weight loss, arthritis and renal involvement 
    • Compared with adults, cSLE has a higher incidence of fever, lymphadenopathy, ocular symptoms, hematologic abnormalities (eg anemia, leukopenia), neurologic (seizures) and renal involvement (lupus nephritis) 
      • cSLE has a greater disease severity and earlier disease damage than in adults with SLE

Signs and Symptoms

Clinical Features of SLE

  • Cardiac
    • Endocarditis
    • Myocarditis
    • Pericarditis
  • Constitutional
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Weight loss
  • Dermatological
    • Alopecia
    • Malar and/or discoid rash
    • Mucous membrane lesion
    • Photosensitivity
    • Purpura
    • Raynaud’s phenomenon
    • Urticaria
    • Vasculitis
  • Gastrointestinal
    • Abdominal pain
    • Nausea, vomiting (N/V)
  • Hematologic
    • Anemia
    • Leukopenia
    • Lymphopenia
    • Thrombocytopenia
  • Thromboembolic 
    • Deep vein thrombosis
    • Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis
    • Pulmonary embolus
    • Arterial stroke
  • Musculoskeletal
    • Arthralgia
    • Arthritis
    • Myositis
  • Neuropsychiatric
    • Headache
    • Cognitive impairment
    • Mood or anxiety disorders
    • Psychosis
    • Seizures
    • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Pulmonary
    • Pleurisy
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Pneumonitis
  • Renal
    • Casts
    • Hematuria
    • Nephrotic syndrome
    • Proteinuria
  • Reticuloendothelial
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Lymphadenopathy
    • Splenomegaly
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