systemic%20lupus%20erythematosus%20(pediatric)
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (PEDIATRIC)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder characterized by formation of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens and immune-complex formation.
It can be suspected when ≥2 organ systems are involved.
It is predominantly diagnosed in females of childbearing age, rarely diagnosed before 8 years old.
Clinical presentation varies in different patients and the disease activity varies over time in a single patient. Majority of patients have arthralgia of the hand.
  1. American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Guidelines. Guidelines for referral and management of systemic lupus erythematosus in adults. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Sep;42(9):1785-1796. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1529-0131(199909)42:9%3C1785::AID-ANR1%3E3.0.CO;2-%23/pdf. PMID: 10513791
  2. Bertsias G, Loannidis JPA, Boletis J, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus: report of a task force of the EULAR standing committee for international clinical studies including therapeutics. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Feb;67(2):195-205. http://ard.bmj.com/content/67/2/195.full.pdf+html. PMID: 17504841
  3. Bertsias GK, Ioannidis JP, Aringer M, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric manifestations: report of a task force of the EULAR standing committee for clinical affairs. Aug 19, 2010. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 Dec;69(12):2074-2082. http://ard.bmj.com/content/69/12/2074.full.pdf+html. PMID: 20724309
  4. Cervera R, Font J. Therapeutic perspectives in systemic lupus erythematosus. Current Rheumatol Rev. 2005 Jan;1(1):45-47
  5. Gill JM, Quisel AM, Rocca PV, et al. Diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Dec;68(11):2179-2186. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1201/p2179.pdf. PMID: 14677663
  6. Kumar A. Indian guidelines on the management of SLE. J Indian Rheumatol Assoc. 2002;10:80-96
  7. Petri M. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: an update. Am Fam Physician. 1998 Jun;57(11):2753-2760. http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0601/p2753.html. PMID: 9636338
  8. Hahn BH, McMahon MA, Wilkinson A, et al; American College of Rheumatology. American College of Rheumatology guidelines for screening, treatment, and management of lupus nephritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Jun;64(6):797-808. doi: 10.1002/acr.21664. PMID: 22556106
  9. Petri M, Orbai AM, Alarcón GS, et al. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Aug;64(8):2677-2686. doi: 10.1002/art.34473. PMID: 22553077
  10. Gripenberg-Gahmberg M. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). EBM Guidelines. Evidence-Based Medicine. Helsinki, Finland: Wiley Interscience, John Wiley & Sons; 2006 May
  11. Klein-Gitelman MS. Systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007.
  12. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
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  14. Bartels CM. Systemic lupus erythematosus. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2228.htm. 2007. Accessed 22 Sep 2008
  15. Klein-Gitelman MS. Systemic lupus erythematosus. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic2199.htm.Klein-Gitelman. 2006
  16. van Vollenhoven RF, Mosca M, Bertsias G, et al. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus: recommendations from an international task force. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jun;73(6):958-967. http://ard.bmj.com/content/early/2014/04/16/annrheumdis-2013-205139.full.pdf. PMID: 24739325
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