Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory,
autoimmune disorder characterized by formation of autoantibodies
directed against self-antigens and immune-complex formation.
Clinical presentation varies in different patients and the disease
activity varies over time in a single patient. Childhood-onset SLE has a greater disease severity and earlier disease damage than in adults with SLE.
In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.