Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory,
autoimmune disorder characterized by formation of autoantibodies
directed against self-antigens and immune-complex formation.
It can be suspected when ≥2 organ systems are involved.
It is predominantly diagnosed in females of childbearing age, rarely diagnosed before 8 years old.
Clinical presentation varies in different patients and the disease
activity varies over time in a single patient. Majority of patients have
arthralgia of the hand.
Infants with low Apgar scores within the normal range (7–10) are at increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity, according to a study in Sweden. Compared with infants with stable Apgar scores of 10, those with a decrease in score from 5–10 minutes are also at higher risk of morbidity.
Maternal exposures to heavy metals vanadium (V), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) at early pregnancy appear to result in lower maternal free T3 (FT3) and FT3/free T4 (FT4) ratio, which may contribute to reduced birthweight, suggests a recent study.