syphilis%20-%20primary
SYPHILIS - PRIMARY
Syphilis is a vertically or sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
In the primary stage of acquired syphilis, there is an appearance of a painless ulcer (chancre). Then in the secondary stage, there are skin rashes and sores on mucous membranes.
In the latent stage, it is asymptomatic and not communicable. It is in the tertiary or late stage that it is symptomatic but not communicable; it usually appears 10-20 years after 1st infection.
  1. Trigg BG, Kerndt PR, Aynalem G. Sexually transmitted infections and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Med Clin North Am. 2008 Sep;92(5):1083-1113. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18721654. Accessed 28 May 2010. PMID: 18721654
  2. Harting M, Rosen T, Vandergriff T. Antibiotic use in sexually transmissible diseases. Dermatol Clin. 2009 Jan;27(1):49-61. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2008.07.002. PMID: 18984368
  3. French P, Gomberg M, Janier M, et al. IUSTI: 2008 European guidelines on the management of syphilis. Int J STD AIDS. 2009 May;20(5):300-309. http://ijsa.rsmjournals.com. Accessed 28 May 2010. PMID: 19386965
  4. French P, Goh G, Goold P, et al. UK national guidelines on the management of syphilis 2008. Int J STD AIDS. 2008 Nov;19(11):729-740. http://www.bashh.org/guidelines. Accessed 29 May 2010. PMID: 18931264
  5. Mattei PL, Beachkofsky TM, Gilson RT, Wisco OJ. Syphilis: a reemerging infection. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Sep;86(5):433-440. PMID: 22963062
  6. Ferri FF. Syphilis. In: Alvero R, Borkan JM, Dobbs MR, et al, eds. Ferri's Clinical Advisor: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. 1st. Philadelphia: Mosby Inc, an affiliate of Elsevier; 2010.
  7. MedWorm http://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Dermatology/12/ http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Dermatology-News.xml
  8. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  9. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections. WHO. http://www.who.int. 2003. Accessed 28 May 2010.
  10. Canadian guideline on sexually transmitted infections: syphilis. Public Health Agency of Canada. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca. Accessed 28 May 2010.
  11. Management of patients who have genital ulcers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed 28 May 2010.
  12. Management of genital ulcers & discharges (summary booklet). Ministry of Health Singapore. http://www.moh.gov.sg. May 2009. Accessed 31 May 2010.
  13. Syphilis. The New Zealand Sexual Health Society (NZSHS). http://www.nzshs.org. Accessed 28 May 2010.
  14. Syphilis-CDC fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/STDFact-Syphilis-detailed.htm. Feb 2013. Accessed 16 Jul 2013
  15. Lazaro N. Sexually transmitted infections in primary care 2013 (RCGP/BASHH). Royal College of General Practitioners. http://www.rcgp.org.uk. 2013. Accessed 30 May 2014.
  16. Kingston M, French P, Goh B, et al; Syphilis Guidelines Revision Group 2008, Clinical Effectiveness Group. UK national guidelines on the management of syphilis 2008. Int J STD AIDS. 19(11):729-740. doi: 10.1258/ijsa.2008.008279. PMID: 18931264
  17. Ministry of Health Malaysia. National antibiotic guideline 2014, 2nd edition. Pharmaceutical Services Divisions, Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.pharmacy.gov.my. Dec 2014. Accessed 16 Jul 2015.
  18. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines for the treatment of Treponema pallidum (syphilis). WHO. http://www.who.int. 2016. Accessed 08 Sep 2016.
  19. Hook EW. Syphilis. Lancet. 2017 Apr 15;389(10078):1550-1557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32411-4.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2019
Macrolide antibiotics are derived from the Streptomycesspecies. These contain either 14-membered (erythromycin [ERM],clarithromycin [CAM], roxithromycin [RXM]), 15-membered(azithromycin [AZM]) or 16-membered (spiramycin, josamycin,midecamycin) macrocyclic lactone rings. They inhibit proteinsynthesis by reversibly binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)in the 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Traditionally,macrolides are used as first-line agents in respiratory, skin,soft tissue, and urogenital infections, and they are also activeagainst gram-positive cocci and atypical pathogens.
19 Jun 2019
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains as one of the world’s leading causes of mortality in global public health. Dr Charles Hicks shared his insights into the increasing role of dolutegravir (DTG; Tivicay, GSK) – an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) – in HIV therapy during the 4th National AIDS Conference 2018 at Swiss Garden International Hotel and Residences, Kuala Lumpur.
21 Sep 2019
Cryptococcosis is more common in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nontransplant (NHNT) patients, and this population tends to have more localized pulmonary cryptococcosis and significantly higher 90-day mortality, reports a study.
Stephen Padilla, 07 May 2019
The risk of HIV transmission is “effectively zero” among gay couples who have condomless anal sex when the HIV viral load is suppressed, according to a new study.