Ask, Advise to quit and Assess are the steps in approaching patients regarding smoking cessation.
All patients should be asked if they use tobacco and should have their tobacco status documented on a regular basis.
Patient with nicotine dependence is characterized by smoking within 30 minutes of waking, consuming >10 cigarettes/day and had withdrawal symptoms in previous attempts of quitting smoking.
Smokers should be strongly urged to quit at every physician encounter.
Advice should be clear, personalized, supportive and non-judgmental.
Determine the willingness of smoker to make a quit attempt.
The airway microbiota is recently demonstrated to be associated with lung cancer via up-regulation of the ERK, PI3K and IL-17A signalling pathways, according to data presented at the recent European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress 2018.
Smoking marijuana may lead to cough, sputum production and wheezing, suggests a recent study with low-strength evidence. In addition, there is insufficient evidence supporting the association between marijuana use and obstructive lung disease.