schizophrenia
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness characterized by symptoms eg hallucinations, disorganized thinking, loss of goal-directed behaviors and deterioration in social role functioning.
Positive or psychotic symptoms are delusions, hallucinations, and distorted perceptions.
Negative symptoms include flat or blunted emotions, lack of motivation or energy, lack of pleasure or interest in things, and limited speech.
Disorganized symptoms are confused thinking, disorganized speech and behavior.
Cognitive symptoms include impairment in attention verbal fluency memory, and executive functioning.
  1. Buckley PF, Noffsinger SG, Hrouda DR, et al. Treatment of psychotic patient who is violent. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003 Mar;26(1):231-272. PMID: 12683268
  2. Geddes J, Freemantle N, Harrison P, et al. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: systematic overview and meta-regression analysis. BMJ. 2000 Dec;321(7273):1371-1376. PMID: 11099280
  3. Csernansky JG. Treatment of schizophrenia: preventing the progression of disease. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003 Jun;26(2):367-379. PMID: 12778839
  4. Emsley R, Oothuizen P. The new and evolving pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003 Mar;26(1):141-163. PMID: 12683264
  5. Davis JM, Chen N, Glick ID. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Jun;60(6):553-564. PMID: 12796218
  6. Lambert TJ, Castle DJ. Pharmacological approaches to the management of schizophrenia. Med J Aust. 2003 May;178(Suppl):S57-S61. PMID: 12720524
  7. Keck PE, McElroy SL. Aripiprazole: a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist antipsychotic. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2003 Apr;12(4):655-662. PMID: 12665420
  8. Gunasekara NS, Spencer CM, Keating GM. Ziprasidone: a review of its use in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Drugs. 2002;62(8):1217-1251. PMID: 12010089
  9. Lindenmayer JP, Kanellopoulou I. Schizophrenia with impulsive and aggressive behaviors. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2009 Dec;32(4):885-902. PMID: 19944890
  10. Miller AL, Hall CS, Crismon ML, et al. Texas Implementation of Medication Algorithms (TIMA) procedural manual: schizophrenia module. 2003 Jan:1-77. http://coordipsy.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/timasczman.pdf.
  11. Moore TA, Covell NH, Essock SM, et al. Real-world antipsychotic treatment practices. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2007 Sep;30(3):401-416. PMID: 17720029
  12. Srisurapanont M, Maneeton B, Maneeton N. Quetiapine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;3:CD000967. PMID: 15106155
  13. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical Practice Guidelines Team for the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Related Disorders. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005 Jan;39(1):001-30. PMID: 15660702
  14. Muench J, Hamer AM. Adverse effects of antipsychotic medications. Am Fam Physician. 2010 Mar;81(5):617-622. PMID: 20187598
  15. Schultz SK, Andreasen NC. Schizophrenia. The Lancet. 1999 Apr;353(9162):1425-1430. PMID: 10227239
  16. Tandon R. Schizophrenia. Conn's Current Therapy. 55th ed: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier; 2003
  17. Pinals DA, Breier A. Schizophrenia. Tasman: Psychiatry. 1st ed: Saunders Company; 1997
  18. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Psychiatry/172/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Psychiatry.xml
  19. Behan C. Current approaches to the management of schizophrenia (Continuing Professional Development, Module 2). Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. http:www.ijpm.ie. Sep 2009. Accessed 11 Aug 2010
  20. Dixon L, Perkins D, Calmes C, et al. Guideline watch (September 2009): practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatryonline. http://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/schizophrenia-watch.pdf. 2004.
  21. Nussbaum AM, Sroup TSCOTT. Paliperidone for the treatment of adults with schizophrenia (review). The Cochrane Collaboration. 2008
  22. Ministry of Health Singapore. Schizophrenia. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg. Feb 2003
  23. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Schizophrenia: core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in primary and secondary care. NICE. http://publications.nice.org.uk/schizophrenia-cg82. 2009. Accessed 11 Aug 2010.
  24. American Psychiatric Association. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. In: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:87-122.
  25. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFBSP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 1: update 2012 on the acute treatment of schizophrenia and the management of treatment resistance. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012;13(5):318-378. http://www.wfsbp.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Treatment_Guidelines/WFBSP_SZ_Guidelines_Part1_2012.pdf. . Accessed 15 Apr 2015. PMID: 22834451
  26. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFBSP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 3: update 2015 management of special circumstances: depression, suicidality, substance use disorders and pregnancy and lactation. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2015;16(3):142-170. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2015.1009163. Accessed 15 Apr 2015. PMID: 25822804
  27. Taylor D, Paton C, Kapur S. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 11th ed: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012:11-151.
  28. Jones MP, Nicholl D, Trakas K. Efficacy & tolerability of paliperidone ER and other oral atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jun;48(6):383-399. PMID: 20497747
  29. Nussbaum AM, Stroup TS. Paliperidone palmitate for schizophrenia (review). The Cochrane Collaboration. 2012.
  30. Mathews M, Tesar G, Fattal O, Muzina DJ. Schizophrenia and acute psychosis. In: Carrey WD . Current clinical medicine. Philadelphia, PA: The Cleveland Clinic Foundation; 2009. Accessed 25 Apr 2017:985-994.
  31. Wilson MP, Pepper D, Currier GW, et al. The psychopharmacology of agitation: consensus statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Psychopharmacology Workgroup. West J Emerg Med. 2012 Feb;13(1):26-34. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2011.9.6866. PMID: 22461918
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Psychiatry - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Tristan Manalac, 20 Dec 2018
Motor activity appears to play a central role in mood regulation, according to a recent study, which also reports that subjective energy is important in motor activity.
Dr. Joseph Delano Fule Robles, 30 Jan 2019

Five subtypes of insomnia disorder were identified by investigators from The Netherlands, addressing an unmet need to reduce the heterogeneity of insomnia disorder.

07 Sep 2018
Individuals with attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or anxiety are at greater risk of developing bipolar disorder, according to a study. Moreover, the risk further increases in those who have received diagnoses of both ADHD and anxiety.
21 Nov 2018
Adults with bipolar disorder who had been maltreated as a child are more likely to have a medical illness than adults with unipolar depression who have had the same experience, according to a study.