scabies
SCABIES
Scabies is a contagious disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis.
The affected individual usually complains of having a highly pruritic rash that occurs at night.
It occurs more often in children <15 years of age, sexually active young adults, the immunocompromised and in persons living in crowded living conditions (eg nursing homes, military barracks).
Transmission is typically by direct skin contact with an infected person and in adults, sexual transmission is common.

Introduction

  • Diagnosis is made based on clinical presentation and can be confirmed by microscopic identification of mites, eggs or mite feces
  • Scabies should be suspected in a patient who presents with a highly pruritic rash with nocturnal predominance
    • Scabies is highly suggested if there is also a history of contact with an infected person or if there is a history of contact with family member or sexual partner who has pruritic lesions with nocturnal predominance
  • Scabies is caused by the mite: Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis
  • Occurs more often in children <15 years, sexually active young adults, the immunocompromised and in persons living in crowded living conditions (eg nursing homes, military barracks)
  • Transmission is typically by direct skin contact with an infected person and in adults, sexual transmission is common
    • Though there is limited documentation, transmission by fomites may be possible (especially in cases of crusted scabies where a large amount of parasites are involved)
    • The mites can live for up to 30 days on a host and remain alive for 3 days on furniture, bedding, etc

Signs and Symptoms

  • Primary symptom is generalized pruritus, which is usually worse at night
    • Pruritus is caused by a delayed (type IV) hypersensitivity reaction to the mite and its products (saliva, eggs and feces) once the host becomes sensitized
    • Hypersensitivity occurs 3-6 weeks after infestation but occurs in 1-3 days with re-infestation because the host has been previously sensitized
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2019
Macrolide antibiotics are derived from the Streptomycesspecies. These contain either 14-membered (erythromycin [ERM],clarithromycin [CAM], roxithromycin [RXM]), 15-membered(azithromycin [AZM]) or 16-membered (spiramycin, josamycin,midecamycin) macrocyclic lactone rings. They inhibit proteinsynthesis by reversibly binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)in the 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Traditionally,macrolides are used as first-line agents in respiratory, skin,soft tissue, and urogenital infections, and they are also activeagainst gram-positive cocci and atypical pathogens.
19 Jun 2019
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains as one of the world’s leading causes of mortality in global public health. Dr Charles Hicks shared his insights into the increasing role of dolutegravir (DTG; Tivicay, GSK) – an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) – in HIV therapy during the 4th National AIDS Conference 2018 at Swiss Garden International Hotel and Residences, Kuala Lumpur.
21 Sep 2019
Cryptococcosis is more common in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nontransplant (NHNT) patients, and this population tends to have more localized pulmonary cryptococcosis and significantly higher 90-day mortality, reports a study.
Stephen Padilla, 07 May 2019
The risk of HIV transmission is “effectively zero” among gay couples who have condomless anal sex when the HIV viral load is suppressed, according to a new study.