rubella
RUBELLA
Rubella, also known as German measles or 3-day measles, is a mild often exanthematous disease of infants and children that is severe and associated with complications in adults. It is self-limiting disease associated with a characteristic maculopapular rash.
It is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus classified as a togavirus, genus Rubivirus.
Transmission is through airborne or droplets shed from respiratory secretions.
Highly communicable at the onset of the rash, however viral shedding may also occur 5-7 days before, to 5-7 days or more following appearance of the rash.
The incubation period is 14-21 days.
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years-United States, 2008. MMWR. 2007;56(51&52):Q1-Q4. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5701a8.htm.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding administration of combination MMRV vaccine. MMWR. 2008 Mar;57(10):258-260. PMID: 18340332
  3. Dontigny L, Arsenault MY, Martel MJ. Rubella in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2008 Feb;30(2):152-158. PMID: 18254998
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles. In: Atkinson W, Hamborsky J, McIntyre L, et al, eds. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine preventable disease. 10th ed. 2nd printing. Washington, DC: Public Health Foundation; 2008.
  5. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  6. Dyne P. Pediatrics, Rubella. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic388.htm
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chapter 19: Rubella. In: Atkinson W, Wolfe S, Hamborsky J, eds. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. 12th ed. Washington, DC: Public Health Foundation; 2012.
  8. Mason WH. Rubella. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.
  9. McLean HQ, Fiebelkorn AP, Temte JL, Wallace GS; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, and mumps, 2013: summary recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013 Jun;62(RR-04):1-34. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr6204.pdf. PMID: 23760231
  10. World Health Organization. Surveillance guidelines for measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome in the WHO European region. World Health Organization. http://www.euro.who.int/_ _ data/assets/pdf_file/0018/79020/e9 3035-2013.pdf?ua=1. Dec 2012. Accessed 12 Dec 2014.
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