rubella
RUBELLA
Rubella, also known as German measles or 3-day measles, is a mild often exanthematous disease of infants and children that is severe and associated with complications in adults. It is self-limiting disease associated with a characteristic maculopapular rash.
It is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus classified as a togavirus, genus Rubivirus.
Transmission is through airborne or droplets shed from respiratory secretions.
Highly communicable at the onset of the rash, however viral shedding may also occur 5-7 days before, to 5-7 days or more following appearance of the rash.
The incubation period is 14-21 days.

Prevention

Rubella vaccine is available as a single-antigen preparation or combined w/ other vaccines [eg mumps & rubella (MMR), or also w/ varicella (MMRV)]

  • MMRV is approved for use in healthy children ≥1-12 yrs of age
  • Routine vaccination against rubella is recommended for all children ≥12 mth; second dose should be routinely given at 4-6 yrs of age
  • Children ≤12 yr w/o previous immunization should be given at least 1 dose of MMR or MMRV
  • May be effective, theoretically, as post-exposure prophylaxis if given w/in 3 days of exposure
  • Single antigen is not routinely recommended

Prevention for Exposed Pregnant Women

  • Counseling regarding the risks & benefits of termination of pregnancy should be off ered to susceptible pregnant women exposed to rubella

Post-exposure Prophylaxis

  • Immunoglobulin may be given if termination of pregnancy is not an option based on maternal predilection
    • May reduce the risk of clinical infection but may not give an assurance of prevention of fetal infection
    • Dose of 0.55 mL/kg IM may be given
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Roshini Claire Anthony, 4 days ago

Individuals with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis may reap better long-term improvements in the severity of their condition when treated with guselkumab over secukinumab, according to findings of the phase III ECLIPSE* trial presented at the recent Inflammatory Skin Disease Summit (ISDS 2018) held in Vienna, Austria.

Jairia Dela Cruz, 11 Jan 2019
Use of standard-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appears to confer protection against the risk of endometrial cancer in overweight and obese women, according to a meta-analysis.
Elvira Manzano, 5 days ago
Treatment with two investigational, oral JAK inhibitors may be beneficial in individuals with moderate‐to‐severe alopecia areata (spot baldness), an autoimmune disease that can cause a lot of anxiety, according to an ongoing phase II study.
3 days ago
Discontinuing the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia appears to be feasible in real-life clinical practice in the context of close molecular monitoring, a study reports.