rubella
RUBELLA
Rubella, also known as German measles or 3-day measles, is a mild often exanthematous disease of infants and children that is severe and associated with complications in adults. It is self-limiting disease associated with a characteristic maculopapular rash.
It is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus classified as a togavirus, genus Rubivirus.
Transmission is through airborne or droplets shed from respiratory secretions.
Highly communicable at the onset of the rash, however viral shedding may also occur 5-7 days before, to 5-7 days or more following appearance of the rash.
The incubation period is 14-21 days.

Prevention

Rubella vaccine is available as a single-antigen preparation or combined w/ other vaccines [eg mumps & rubella (MMR), or also w/ varicella (MMRV)]

  • MMRV is approved for use in healthy children ≥1-12 yrs of age
  • Routine vaccination against rubella is recommended for all children ≥12 mth; second dose should be routinely given at 4-6 yrs of age
  • Children ≤12 yr w/o previous immunization should be given at least 1 dose of MMR or MMRV
  • May be effective, theoretically, as post-exposure prophylaxis if given w/in 3 days of exposure
  • Single antigen is not routinely recommended

Prevention for Exposed Pregnant Women

  • Counseling regarding the risks & benefits of termination of pregnancy should be off ered to susceptible pregnant women exposed to rubella

Post-exposure Prophylaxis

  • Immunoglobulin may be given if termination of pregnancy is not an option based on maternal predilection
    • May reduce the risk of clinical infection but may not give an assurance of prevention of fetal infection
    • Dose of 0.55 mL/kg IM may be given
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
18 Aug 2018
Despite the absence of a substance use problem, regular cannabis use is associated with psychosocial impairment among adolescents and young adults, a study suggests. On the other hand, regular users with cannabis use disorder appear to exhibit high psychiatric comorbidity and more severe psychosocial impairment.
07 Sep 2018
Children with Down syndrome appear to have an elevated risk of developing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, a study has found.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 01 Sep 2018
Tight glycaemic control does not yield significant short-term survival gains and risk reductions for infections when compared with a conventional glucose-lowering strategy in critically ill patients in the paediatric intensive care unit, according to a meta-analysis.
01 Oct 2018
Due to varying analyses and reporting methods, fever rates in studies substantially differ. As such, there is a need for standardized fever reporting to allow comparisons between studies, according to a recent investigation.