Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous disease of the convexities of the central face (cheeks, chin, nose and central forehead) w/ periorbital and perioral skin sparing. This condition is attributed to chronic vasodilation.
Remissions and exacerbations are common.
It typically appears after 30 years of age but may occur at any age.  It commonly affects fair-skinned individuals.
The common presenting symptoms are facial flushing, stinging/burning erythema, telangiectasia, edema, papules, pustules, ocular lesions, and hypertrophy of the sebaceous glands of the nose with fibrosis.
A history of episodic flushing often heralds onset of rosacea.
  1. Blount WB, Pelletier AL. Rosacea: a common, yet commonly overlooked, condition. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Aug;66(3):435-440. PMID: 12182520
  2. Cohen AF, Tiemstra JD. Diagnosis and treatment of rosacea. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2002 Jun;15(3):214-217. PMID: 12038728
  3. Dahl MV, Jarratt M, Kaplan D, et al. Once-daily topical metronidazole cream formulations in the treatment of the papules and pustules of rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Nov;45(5):723-730. PMID: 11606923
  4. Elewski BE, Fleischer AB, Pariser DM. A comparison of 15% azelaic acid gel and 0.75% metronidazole gel in the topical treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Arch Dermatol. 2003 Nov;139(11):1444-1450. PMID: 14623704
  5. Dahl MV, Katz IH, Krueger GG, et al. Topical metronidazole maintains remissions of rosacea. Arch Dermatol. 1998 Jun;134(6):679-683. PMID: 9645635
  6. Goldgar C, Keahey D, Houchins J. Treatment options for acne rosacea. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Sep;80(5):461-468. PMID: 19725487
  7. Landow K. Unraveling the mystery of rosacea. Postgrad Med. 2002 Dec;112(6):51-58. PMID: 12510446
  8. Liu RH, Smith MK, Basta SA, et al. Azelaic acid in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1047-1052. PMID: 16924055
  9. Maddin S. A comparison of topical azelaic acid 20% cream and topical metronidazole 0.75% cream in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Jun;40:961-965. PMID: 10365928
  10. Powell FC. Clinical Practice. Rosacea. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb;352(8):793-803. PMID: 15728812
  11. Rebora A. The management of rosacea. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(7):486-496. PMID: 12180896
  12. Wilkin J, Dahl M, Detmar M, et al. Standard classification of rosacea: Report of the National Rosacea Society Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Apr;46(4):584-587. PMID: 11907512
  13. Thiboutot DM. Acne and rosacea. New and emerging therapies. Dermatol Clin. 2000 Jan;18(1):63-71. PMID: 10626112
  14. Wilkin J, Dahl M, Detmar M, et al. Standard grading of rosacea: Report of the National Rosacea Society Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Jun;50(6):907-912. PMID: 15153893
  15. Wilkin JK, DeWitt S. Treatment of rosacea: topical clindamycin versus oral tetracycline. Int J Dermatol. 1993 Jan;32(1):65-67. PMID: 8425809
  16. Zuber TJ. Rosacea. Prim Care. 2000 Jun;27(2):309-318. PMID: 10815045
  17. Habif TP. Rosacea (acne rosacea). Clinical Dermatology. 3rd ed: Mosby-Year Book Inc; 1996
  18. MedWorm
  19. MedWorm
  20. Kim J. Acne and Rosacea getting you down? Laser, light and cosmetic treatments give patients a much-needed boost. Bio-Medicine. Feb 2003
  21. Rouzeau V, Pelegrin G. Coping with rosacea: a guide from triggers to treatments. Pharmacy Times. May 2011. Accessed 13 Aug 2013
  22. Rosacea. Primary Care Dermatology Society. http://website. Mar 2013. Accessed 13 Aug 2013
  23. Rosacea - treatment. NHS choices. Mar 2012. Accessed 14 Aug 2013
  24. American Academy of Dermatology. Rosacea treatment. RosaceaNet.
  25. Gooderham M. Rosacea and its topical management. Skin Therapy Jun 2012. Accessed 14 Aug 2013
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
07 Oct 2018
Patients using long-acting opioids with immunosuppressive properties are at greater risk of developing serious infections compared with those using the nonimmunosuppressive opioid counterpart, according to a study.
30 Aug 2017
Admissions to the hospital for cellulitis appear to greatly increase with warmer weather, suggesting that warmer weather is a risk factor for the infectious disease, according to a study.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 06 Mar 2019

Older adults who are diagnosed with cancer appear to have an elevated risk of developing zoster, particularly those diagnosed with haematological cancers, according to findings of an Australian study.

Stephen Padilla, 18 Feb 2019
A higher frequency of enterovirus, but not adenovirus, infection during early childhood may increase the risk of later coeliac disease, suggests a recent study, adding new data on the role of viral infections in the aetiology of coeliac disease.