rhytides%20(wrinkles)
RHYTIDES (WRINKLES)
Rhytides or wrinkles are visible creases or folds in the skin.
Fine wrinkles is <1 mm in width while coarse wrinkles is >1 mm in width.
The decision to treat wrinkles depends on the degree that they bother the patient, the nature and severity of the wrinkles, and the patient's willingness to accept the risks and costs of treatment.
The patient should understand that protection from the sun at any age will reduce the risk of photoaging (including wrinkles), actinic keratoses and squamous cell cancer.
  1. Jackson BA. Cosmetic considerations and nonlaser cosmetic procedures in ethnic skin. Dermatol Clin. 2003;21:703-712. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=14717411. PMID: 14717411
  2. Lockman AR, Lockman DW. Skin changes in the maturing woman. Clin Fam Practice. 2002;4:113-133.
  3. Klein AW. Botox for the eyes and eyebrows. Dermatol Clin. 2004;22:145-149. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Klein+AW%09Botox+for+the+eyes+and+eyebrows. PMID: 15222574
  4. Lawrence N. New and emerging treatments for photoaging. Dermatol Clin. 2000;18:99-12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Lawrence+N%09New+and+emerging+treatments+for+photoaging. PMID: 10626116
  5. Rabe JH, Mamelak AJ, McElgunn PJ, et al. Photoaging: mechanisms and repair. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:1-19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Rabe++JH%2C++Mamelak+AJ%2C++McElgunn++PJ%2C++et++al%09%22Photoaging%3A+mechanisms+and+repair%22. PMID: 16781287
  6. Mendelsohn JE. Update on chemical peels. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2002;35:55-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Mendelsohn+JE%09Update+on+chemical+peels. PMID: 11781207
  7. Samuel M, Brooke R, Griffiths C. Wrinkles. Clin Evid. 2004:2375-2389. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15865796. PMID: 15865796
  8. Stern RS. Treatment of photoaging. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1526-1534. PMID: 15071127
  9. Management of aging skin. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al. Cummings otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. 4th: Mosby; 2005.
  10. MedWorm http://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Dermatology/12/ http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Dermatology-News.xml
  11. Habif TP. Light-related diseases and disorders of pigmentation. In: Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:779-782.
  12. Alexiades M. Nonablative skin resurfacing for skin rejuvenation. UpToDate. www.uptodate.com. Aug 2019.
  13. American Academy of Facial Esthetics. Types of wrinkles & wrinkle treatments. AAFE. https://www.facialesthetics.org/. 2019.
  14. Born TM, Airan LE, Suissa D. Injectables and resurfacing techniques: soft-tissue fillers. In: Rubin JP, Neligan PC, eds. Plastic Surgery: Volume 2: Aesthetic Surgery. 4th ed: Elsevier Inc.; 2018.
  15. Carruthers A, Carruthers J. Botulinum toxin for cosmetic indications: treatment of specific sites. UpToDate. www.uptodate.com. May 2019.
  16. Carruthers A, Carruthers J, Humphrey S. Injectable soft tissue fillers: overview of clinical use. UpToDate. www.uptodate.com. May 2019.
  17. Cleveland Clinic. Wrinkles and Treatments. Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/. Apr 2015.
  18. DeLeo VA. Sunscreens and photoprotection. In: Bolognia JL, Schaffer JV, Cerroni L. Dermatology. 4th ed: Elsevier Inc.; 2018.
  19. Goldberg DJ. Ablative laser resurfacing for skin rejuvenation. UpToDate. www.uptodate.com. Jun 2019.
  20. Loesch MM, Somani AK, Kingsley MM, et al. Skin resurfacing procedures: new and emerging options. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2014;7:231–241. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S50367. PMID: 25210469
  21. Manriquez JJ, Cataldo K, Vera-Kellet C, et al. Wrinkles. BMJ Clin Evid. 2014;2014:1711. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. PMID: 25569867
  22. Moghimipour E. Hydroxy acids, the most widely used anti-aging agents. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2012;7(1):9-10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. PMID: 24624144
  23. Oakley A. Facial lines and wrinkles. DermNet NZ. http://www.dermnetnz.org/. 2019.
  24. Obagi S. Chemical peels: principles, peeling agents, and pretreatment assessment. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Jun 2019.
  25. Perkins SW, Waters HH. Management of aging skin. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al eds. Cummings Otolaryngology . 6th ed: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc; 2015.
  26. Rendon MI, Berson DS, Cohen JL, et al. Evidence and considerations in the application of chemical peels in skin disorders and aesthetic resurfacing. J Clin Aesthetic Dermatol. 2010;3(7):32–43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. PMID: 20725555
  27. Small R. Botulinum toxin injection for facial wrinkles. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Aug;90(3):168-175. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p168.html. PMID: 25077722
  28. Smeltzer WL. Cosmeceuticals and skin care. In: Fowler GC ed. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care. 4th ed: Elsevier Inc.; 2019.
  29. Stuziin JM. Facelift: the extended SMAS technique in facial rejuvenation. In: Rubin JP, Neligan PC, eds. Plastic Surgery: Volume 2: Aesthetic Surgery. 4th ed: Elsevier Inc.; 2018.
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
29 Nov 2019
Metformin Extended Release 500 mg,750 mg, and 1000 mg
4 days ago
Men who undergo flexible cystoscopy, particularly with a longer dwell time, may benefit from intraurethral lidocaine as it provides significant pain reduction, suggest the results of a meta-analysis. Evidence is lacking for other tested interventions.
Pearl Toh, 3 days ago
Getting just under one extra hour of sleep per night can go a long way for the health of college students, who are often sleep-deprived, a study suggests.
3 days ago
While douching is not associated with the risk of ovarian cancer, the combination of talc and commercially available douches contributes to a modest increase in the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer beyond that conferred by talc use alone, as shown in a recent study.