Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is the mucosal inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses caused by bacteria lasting ≥10 days for up to 4 weeks with no clinical improvement, severe signs or symptoms [eg high fever (39°C), purulent nasal discharge, facial pain] of ≥3-4 consecutive days, and worsening of symptoms within 10 days after initial improvement.
It is often preceded by a viral upper respiratory tract infection, rhinitis or other conditions that impair local or systemic immune function (eg nonallergic rhinitis, dental infection, mechanical obstruction of the nose, cystic fibrosis, ciliary dysfunction, immunodeficiency that impair the sinus drainage).
Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and typically difficult to differentiate from viral upper respiratory tract infection.
There is fever with nasal obstruction/congestion or anterior and/or posterior purulent drainage, with or without facial pressure/pain/fullness and reduction/loss of smell. Streptococcus pneumoniae and unencapsulated strains of Haemophilus influenzae cause half of acute rhinosinusitis cases.
Dupilumab significantly improves all disease components of severe, uncontrolled chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) — a primarily type 2 inflammatory condition — compared with placebo when both are added to standard of care. Furthermore, the treatment benefit extends to even patients with comorbid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-exacerbated respiratory disease (NSAID-ERD), according to a pooled analysis of the LIBERTY NP SINUS-24 and -52* trials presented at ERS 2019.
A large number of patients who present at outpatient clinics with symptoms of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) during influenza seasons are prescribed antibiotics despite not needing them, a finding that highlights the overuse of antibiotics in ARIs, a recent study showed.
Children who undergo adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, or both (adenotonsillectomy) within the first 9 years of life may have an elevated long-term risk of respiratory, allergic, or infectious diseases, results from a Denmark-based study show.
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Gefapixant, a first-in-class non-narcotic, oral P2X3 receptor antagonist, significantly reduces cough frequency in patients with refractory or unexplained chronic cough, according to two COUGH* studies presented at ERS 2020.
Treatment with the DPP 1* inhibitor brensocatib prolonged time to exacerbation and reduced exacerbation rates in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, according to the phase II WILLOW** study presented at ERS 2020.
Almost three-quarters of adverse events (AEs) related to medication errors in over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications (CCMs) for paediatrics required evaluation by healthcare facility and majority of the cases were due to dosing errors, a surveillance study has found, highlighting the need for interventions to mitigate medication errors.