rheumatic%20fever%20-%20acute
RHEUMATIC FEVER - ACUTE
Acute rheumatic fever is an autoimmune response to a previous group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) infection causing acute generalized anti-inflammatory response primarily affecting the heart.
It often presents in patients 5-14 years of age and uncommon before 3 years and after 21 years of age.
Patients presenting with acute rheumatic fever are severely unwell, in extreme pain and requires hospitalization.
  1. Cilliers AM. Rheumatic fever and its management. BMJ. 2006 Dec;333(7579):1153-1156. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1676147/pdf/bmj-333-7579-cr-01153.pdf. PMID: 17138996
  2. Atatoa-Carr P, Lennon D, Wilson N, et al. Rheumatic fever diagnosis, management, and secondary prevention: A New Zealand Guideline. N Z Med J. 2008 Apr;121(1271):59-69. PMID: 18392063
  3. Gerber MA, Baltimore MS, Eaton CB, et al. Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute Streptococcal pharyngitis: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, the Interdisciplinary Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology, and the Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Feb 26, 2009. Circulation. 2009 Mar;119(11):1541-1551. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/119/11/1541.full.pdf. PMID: 19246689
  4. Rheumatic Fever/Porter RS, Kaplan JL, Homeier BP, et al Rheumatic Fever. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc; 2008. http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec19/ch281/ch281a.html
  5. Porter RS, Kaplan JL, Homeier BP, et al, eds. Rheumatic fever. In: Porter RS, Kaplan JL, Homeier BP, et al, eds. Merck Manual. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc; 2006. http://merck.com/mmpe/sec19/ch281/ch281a.html.RHD.
  6. Gerber MA. Group A streptococcus. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, et al, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007.
  7. RHD Australia (ARF/RHD writing group), National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. The Australian guideline for prevention, diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. 2nd ed: Menzies of Health Research; 2012.
  8. Park MK. Acute rheumatic fever. In: Park MK. Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, Elsevier; 2008.
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Cardiology/7/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Cardiology.xml
  10. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  11. The National Heart Foundation of New Zealand and The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand guidelines for rheumatic fever (Diagnosis, management and secondary prevention; no. 1). Australia: The National Heart Foundation of Australia. http://www.nhf.org.nz/files/Rheumatic%20fever%20guideline%
  12. Carapetis J, Brown A, Walsh W, et al, for The National Heart Foundation of New Zealand and The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Australia: an evidence-based review. The National Heart Foundation of Australia website. http://doctor-ru.org/main/1800/1805.pdf. Jun 2006.
  13. Gewitz MH, Baltimore RS, Tani LY, et al; American Heart Association Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Revision of the Jones Criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of Doppler echocardiography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015 May;131(20):1806-1818. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000205. PMID: 25908771
  14. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov;55(10):e86-e102. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis629. PMID: 22965026
  15. The National Heart Foundation of New Zealand and The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand guidelines for rheumatic fever: diagnosis, management and secondary prevention of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: 2014 update. Heart Foundation website. http://www.heartfoundation.org.nz/uploads/HF2227A_Rheumatic_Fever_Guideline_v3.pdf. 2014.
  16. The National Heart Foundation of New Zealand and The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand guidelines for rheumatic fever: group A streptococcal sore throat management: 2014 update. Heart Foundation website. http://www.heartfoundation.org.nz/uploads/sore_throat_guideline_14_10_06_FINAL-revised.pdf. 2014.
  17. The National Heart Foundation of New Zealand and The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand guidelines for rheumatic fever: proposed rheumatic fever primary prevention programme. Heart Foundation website. http://www.heartfoundation.org.nz/uploads/Rheumatic%20Fever%20Guideline%203(6).pdf. May 2009.
  18. The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. Sore throat. The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne website. http://www.rch.org.au/clinicalguide/guideline_index/Sore_Throat/. 2015.
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