Acute rheumatic fever is an autoimmune response to a previous group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) infection causing acute generalized anti-inflammatory response primarily affecting the heart.
It often presents in patients 5-14 years of age and uncommon before 3 years and after 21 years of age.
Patients presenting with acute rheumatic fever are severely unwell, in extreme pain and requires hospitalization.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • Reactive arthritis including post-streptococcal arthritis
  • Infectious arthritis
  • Serum sickness
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Hematologic disorders (eg sickle cell anemia & leukemia)
  • Mixed connective tissue disease
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