An 82-year-old lady with hypertension and hyperlipidaemia presented with 2 weeks’ history of increasing breathing difficulty. She had flu-like illness 2 weeks ago with some residual dry cough. Physical examination showed low-grade fever of 37.8°C with mildly elevated jugular venous pressure and mild pedal oedema. There was no obvious murmur, and chest auscultation revealed bilateral basal crepitations. Her blood pressure was 130/80 mm Hg. She required oxygen 1 L/min to maintain blood oxygen saturation level (SpO2) of 94 percent.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the 10th commonest cause of death in Singapore, with a disease burden of 5.9 percent according to a 2015 population-based survey (EPIC-Asia survey) in Singapore. Pearl Toh spoke with Dr Augustine Tee, chief and senior consultant of the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine at Changi General Hospital (CGH) in Singapore, on how COPD is often underdetected in the primary care population as symptoms are not specific and diagnosis requires a combination of clinical risk factors, symptoms and spirometry testing.
There are various ear, nose, and throat (ENT) conditions which present to the GP’s clinic. Dr Jason Hwang, an ENT Consultant from the Department of Otolaryngology at Gleneagles Hospital in Singapore, speaks on how the majority of the conditions can be effectively managed at the primary care level seeing that these can be treated medically without the need for surgical intervention.
Lung cancer still poses a challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment. In many countries in Asia, the condition remains a significant cause of mortality. The prevalence of tuberculosis in the region also confounds this problem, which necessitates a highly efficient means to differentiate these two entities. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB), a state-of-the-art lung biopsy technique, was recently introduced in Hong Kong, placing the city as a pioneer in its utilization in the region. Dr Chung-Ming Chu, Specialist in Respiratory Medicine in Hong Kong, discusses the role of ENB in diagnosing pulmonary lesions and shares his experience on its use.
This is the case of a 77-year-old man with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In September 2015, he was admitted to a regional hospital in Hong Kong due to fever and shortness of breath, and was diagnosed with pneumonia, the fourth episode in his life.
Dengue fever is caused by the dengue virus and borne by the Aedes mosquito. The virus causes flu-like symptoms that generally resolve on their own with supportive care but severe cases require further management and possibly hospitalization. Primary care doctors are frequently the first point of contact for people with dengue fever. Radha Chitale spoke with Dr. Jenny Low, a senior consultant in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Singapore General Hospital, about what they can do for affected patients.
Electronic cigarettes could be one of the biggest public health opportunities of our time, but that depends on who you talk to. They have been shown to be effective in helping smokers quit and many believe them to be much safer than cigarettes. But the debate rages on.
Infants with persistent rhinitis have a higher abundance of Actinobacteria, especially Corynebacterium spp., in their nasal microbiome compared with healthy controls, according to a Singapore-based study presented at the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Annual Congress 2016 held in Vienna, Austria.
“At present, there is a limited development of new antibiotics. There is also a fast development of resistance to antibiotics. There are pathogens no longer susceptible to all antibiotics, and many pathogens are no longer susceptible to most antibiotics,” said Dr. Andre Villanueva, chief of party of the USAID’s Innovations and Multisectoral Partnerships to Achieve Control of TB (IMPACT) Project at the recent Annual Convention of the Philippine Pharmacists’ Association in Davao City.
Synbiotic mixture of oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) M-16V probiotic strain in infant formula restores gut colonisation by B. breve and supports healthy gut development in infants delivered by Caesarean-section (C-section), according to a study presented at the recent European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) annual meeting held in Athens, Greece.