Prostate cancer is the cancer that occurs in the male's prostate.

It is the most common cancer in men >50 years of age.

Signs and symptoms include weak urinary stream, polyuria, nocturia, hematuria, erectile dysfunction, pelvic pain, back pain, chest pain, lower extremity weakness or numbness and loss of bowel or bladder control.

Surgical Intervention

Radical Prostatectomy

  • Removal of the prostate gland as a whole, including the seminal vesicles, ampulla of the vas deferens, and lymph nodes
  • First-line treatment for patients with tumors confined to the prostate gland, with low-intermediate risk disease, and life expectancy of >10 years
  • High cure rate for patients with purely localized disease

Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection (PLND)

  • Recommended for patients with high-risk or locally advanced disease with nodal metastases, done concurrently with radical prostatectomy
  • Extended lymph node dissection involves the removal of the lymph nodes in the area of the external iliac artery and vein, veins within the obturator fossa, and medial and lateral nodes of the internal iliac artery


  • Also called surgical castration
  • Recommended castration method for patients with intermediate- to very high-risk prostate cancer and those with treatment-naive locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer
  • Bilateral orchiectomy (total or subcapsular pulpectomy) is recommended for patients with metastatic prostate cancer

Cryosurgery (Cryotherapy/Cryoablation)

  • Minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves freezing and destruction of tumor tissues
  • Treatment option for patients with high-risk prostate cancer following radiation therapy and as initial treatment for patients with low- to intermediate-risk localized or locally advanced stages
    • Prostate size should be <40 mL at the time of therapy
  • Lower risk of damage to nearby structures and complication secondary to radical treatment
  • Studies reported a range of 52%-92% biochemical disease-free survival within 5-7 years, depending on criteria used
    • Discussion with patient should be made regarding the lack of long-term efficacy comparative outcome data

Other Ablative Techniques

  • Eg high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), radiofrequency ablation and electroporation
  • High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive procedure that uses focused ultrasound waves emitted from a transducer to cause thermal damage to malignant tissues
    • May be applicable for low- to intermediate-risk patients but further studies are needed to conclude use
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