prostate%20cancer
PROSTATE CANCER

Prostate cancer is the cancer that occurs in the male's prostate.

It is the most common cancer in men >50 years of age.

Signs and symptoms include weak urinary stream, polyuria, nocturia, hematuria, erectile dysfunction, pelvic pain, back pain, chest pain, lower extremity weakness or numbness and loss of bowel or bladder control.

Prostate%20cancer Signs and Symptoms

Introduction

  • Second most common cancer in men; one of the most common cancers in men >50 years of age 

Signs and Symptoms

  • Weak urinary stream
  • Polyuria, nocturia
  • Hematuria
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Pelvic pain, back pain, chest pain
  • Lower extremity weakness or numbness
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control

Risk Factors

  • Age (increased risk in men >50 years old)
  • Positive family history: 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives diagnosed with metastatic prostate, ovarian, breast (female ≤45 years old), colorectal, endometrial (≤50 years old) or pancreatic cancer, and those with ≥2 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives diagnosed with prostate, breast, colorectal or endometrial cancer at any age
  • Ethnicity (African ancestry)
  • Chemical exposures (toxic combustion products)
  • Genetic mutations: Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), RAD51 paralog D (RAD51D), partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) mutations, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair genes [MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2), MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1), Lynch syndrome], insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)
  • Other risk factors under research include a positive medical history of inflammation of the prostate gland [eg prostatitis, STDs, proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIN)] and vasectomy
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