Prostate cancer is the cancer that occurs in the male's prostate.

It is the most common cancer in men >50 years of age.

Signs and symptoms include weak urinary stream, polyuria, nocturia, hematuria, erectile dysfunction, pelvic pain, back pain, chest pain, lower extremity weakness or numbness and loss of bowel or bladder control.


  • One of the most common cancers in men >50 years of age 

Signs and Symptoms

  • Weak urinary stream
  • Polyuria, nocturia
  • Hematuria
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Pelvic pain, back pain, chest pain
  • Lower extremity weakness or numbness
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control

Risk Factors

  • Age (increased risk in men >50 years old)
  • Positive family history (1st-degree relatives and relatives diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age doubles the risk)
  • Ethnicity (African-American, Caribbean men of African ancestry)
  • Chemical exposures (toxic combustion products)
  • Genetic mutations: Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) mutations, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair genes [MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2), MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1), Lynch syndrome], insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)
  • Other risk factors under research include a positive medical history of inflammation of the prostate gland [eg prostatitis, STDs, proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIN)] and vasectomy
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