Treatment Guideline Chart

Prostate cancer is the cancer that occurs in the male's prostate.

It is the most common cancer in men >50 years of age.

Signs and symptoms include weak urinary stream, polyuria, nocturia, hematuria, erectile dysfunction, pelvic pain, back pain, chest pain, lower extremity weakness or numbness and loss of bowel or bladder control.

Prostate%20cancer Signs and Symptoms


  • Second most common cancer in men; one of the most common cancers in men >50 years of age 

Signs and Symptoms

  • Weak urinary stream, incomplete bladder emptying
  • Polyuria, nocturia
  • Hematuria
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Pelvic pain, back pain, chest pain
  • Lower extremity weakness or numbness
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control

Risk Factors

  • Age (increased risk in men >50 years old)
  • Positive family history: 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives diagnosed with metastatic prostate, ovarian, breast (female ≤45 years old), colorectal, endometrial (≤50 years old) or pancreatic cancer, and those with ≥2 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives diagnosed with prostate, breast, colorectal or endometrial cancer at any age
  • Ethnicity (African ancestry, Ashkenazi Jewish descent)
  • Chemical exposures (toxic combustion products)
  • Genetic mutations: Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), homeobox B13 (HOXB13), epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EPCAM), nibrin (NBN), tumor protein 53 (TP53), partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2), deoxyribonucleicacid (DNA) mismatch repair genes [mutS homolog 2 (MSH2), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), Lynch syndrome, mutS homolog 6 (MSH6), post-meiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2)], insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)
  • Other risk factors under research include a positive medical history of inflammation of the prostate gland [eg prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA)] and vasectomy
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