prostate%20cancer
PROSTATE CANCER

Prostate cancer is the cancer that occurs in the male's prostate.

It is the most common cancer in men >50 years of age.

Signs and symptoms include weak urinary stream, polyuria, nocturia, hematuria, erectile dysfunction, pelvic pain, back pain, chest pain, lower extremity weakness or numbness and loss of bowel or bladder control.

  1. American Cancer Society. Prostate cancer staging. American Cancer Society website. https://cancerstaging.org/references-tools/quickreferences/Documents/ProstateSmall.pdf. 2009.
  2. American Cancer Society. Prostate cancer prevention and early detection. American Cancer Society website. http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003182-pdf.pdf. 2015.
  3. American Urological Association; Prostate-Specific Antigen Best Practice Statement Update Panel Members. PSA testing for the pretreatment staging and posttreatment management of prostate cancer: 2013 revision of 2009 best practice statement. American Urological Association website. https://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Prostate-Specific-Antigen.pdf. 2013.
  4. Australian Cancer Network Management of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Working Party. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Council Australia and Australian Cancer Network website. http://www.cancer.org.au/content/pdf/HealthProfessionals/ClinicalGuidelines/FINAL_Advanced_Prostate_Cancer_Guidelines.pdf. 2010.
  5. Cassinello J, Climent MA, González del Alba A, Mellado B, Virizuela JA; Spanish Society for Medical Oncology. SEOM clinical guidelines for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Transl Oncol. 2014 Dec;16(12):1060-1066. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4239763/pdf/12094_2014_Article_1225.pdf. PMID: 25319721
  6. Cookson MS, Roth BJ, Dahm P, et al. Castration-resistant prostate cancer: AUA guideline. American Urological Association website. https://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Castration-Resistant-Prostate-Cancer.pdf. 2015.
  7. Cooperberg MR, Pasta DJ, Elkin EP, et al. The UCSF Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) Score: a straightforward and reliable preoperative predictor of disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2005 Jun;173(6):1938-1942. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2948569/pdf/nihms233418.pdf. PMID: 15879786
  8. Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, et al; European Association of Urology. EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013. Eur Urol. 2014 Jan;65(1):124-137. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.09.046. PMID: 24207135
  9. Mohan R, Schellhammer PF. Treatment options for localized prostate cancer. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Aug;84(4):413-420. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0815/p413.pdf. PMID: 21842788
  10. Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Briers E, et al, for the European Association of Urology. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology website. http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/1607-Prostate-Cancer_LRV3.pd. 2014.
  11. Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Briers E, et al, for the European Association of Urology. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology website. http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/EAU-Guidelines-Prostate-Cancer-2015-v2.pdf. 2015.
  12. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: prostate cancer. Version 1.2015. NCCN website. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate.pdf.
  13. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Interventional procedure guidance: cryotherapy as a primary treatment for prostate cancer. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg145/resources/cryotherapy-as-a-primary-treatment-for-prostate-cancer-1899863221343173. Nov 2005.
  14. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Interventional procedure guidance: focal therapy using cryoablation for localised prostate cancer. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg423. Apr 2012.
  15. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs91/resources/prostate-cancer-2098964001733. Jun 2015.
  16. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg175/resources/prostate-cancer-diagnosis-and-management-35109753913285. Jan 2014.
  17. Parker C, Gillessen S, Heidenreich A, Horwich A; ESMO Guidelines Committee. Cancer of the prostate: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2015 Sep;26(Suppl 5):v69-v77. http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/suppl_5/v69.full.pdf. PMID: 26205393
  18. PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65968/. Feb 2015.
  19. PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK66036/. Aug 2015.
  20. Thompson I, Thrasher JB, Aus G, et al; AUA Prostate Cancer Clinical Guideline Update Panel. Guideline for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer: 2007 update. J Urol. 2007 Jun;177(6):2106-2131. http://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/education/clinical-guidance/Prostate-Cancer.pdf. PMID: 17509297
  21. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: prostate cancer version 3.2016. NCCN. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate.pdf. 26 May 2016.
  22. Helsen C, Van den Broeck T, Voet A, et al. Androgen receptor antagonists for prostate cancer therapy. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014 Aug;21(4):T105-118. doi: 10.1530/ERC-13-0545. PMID: 24639562
  23. Hussain M, Fizazi K, Saad F, et al. Enzalutamide in men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 28;378(26):2465-2474. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1800536. PMID: 29949494
  24. Kallur KG, Ramachandra PG, Rajkumar K, et al. Clinical utility of gallium-68 PSMA PET/CT scan for prostate cancer. Indian J Nucl Med. 2017 Apr-Jun;32(2):110-117. doi: 10.4103/0972-3919.202255. PMID: 28533638
  25. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves enzalutamide for castration-resistant prostate cancer. US FDA. https://www.fda.gov. 16 Jul 2018.
  26. Mottet N, van den Bergh RCN, Briers E, et al. Prostate Cancer. European Association of Urology (EAU). http://uroweb.org/guideline/prostate-cancer/#6. 2018.
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