primary%20open-angle%20glaucoma
PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, progressive, usually bilateral disease of the eye with an insidious onset.
It is most often characterized by optic nerve damage, defects in the retinal fiber layer and subsequent visual field loss in the absence of underlying ocular disease or congenital abnormalities.
It is generally asymptomatic until it has caused a significant loss of visual field.
Occasionally, patients with very high intraocular pressure may complain of nonspecific headache, discomfort, intermittent blurring of vision or even halos caused by corneal edema.
  1. Canadian Ophthalmological Society Glaucoma Clinical Practice Guideline Expert Committee; Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Canadian Ophthalmological Society evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of glaucoma in the adult eye. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44(Suppl Suppl 1):S7-S93. doi: 10.3129/cjo44s1. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 19492005
  2. Broan AM, Garcger CP, Sirbat D, et al. Comparison of two fixed beta-blocker-pilocarpine combinations. The Carteolol-Pilocarpine Study Group. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1997;7(4):351-356. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 9457458
  3. Demailly P, Allaire C, Bron V, Trinquand C. Effectiveness and tolerance of beta blocker/pilocarpine combination eye drops in primary open-angle glaucoma and high intraocular pressure. J Glaucoma. 1995 Aug;4(4):235-241. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 19920680
  4. European Glaucoma Society. Terminology and guidelines in glaucoma. 3rd. Italy: European Glaucoma Society; 2008.
  5. South East Asia Interest Group. Asia Pacific glaucoma guidelines. 2nd ed. Sydney, Australia: SEAGIG; 2008
  6. Henderson P, Labbe T, Kass MA. Ocular hypertension. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, Augsburger JJ, et al. Yanoff & Duker: Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby, Inc; 2008
  7. Japan Glaucoma Society. Guidelines for glaucoma. 2nd ed. Japan Glaucoma Society. http://ryokunaisho.jp/. Sep 2006. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  8. National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care. Glaucoma: Diagnosis and management of chronic open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. http://www.nice.org.uk/. Apr 2009. Accessed 03 Feb 2012.
  9. American Academy of Ophthalmology Glaucoma Panel. Preferred Practice Guidelines. Primary open-angle glaucoma. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/summary-benchmark-detail/primary-openangle-glaucoma-suspect-summary-benchma. Oct 2013
  10. American Optometric Association Original Consensus Panel on Care of the Patient with Open-Angle Glaucoma. Optometric clinical practice guideline care of the patient with open-angle glaucoma. American Optometric Association. http://www.aoa.org/documents/CPG-9.pdf. 2010. Accessed 03 Feb 2012
  11. International Council of Ophthalmology. Primary open-angle glaucoma: initial evaluation. International Council of Ophthalmology. http://www.icoph.org/dynamic/attachments/resources/icopoaglaucomainev_2.pdf. 2010. Accessed 04 Feb 2012
  12. International Council of Ophthalmology. Primary open-angle glaucoma: follow-up evaluation. International Council of Ophthalmology. http://www.icoph.org/dynamic/attachments/resources/icopoaglaucomafu_2.pdf. 2010. Accessed 04 Feb 2012
  13. International Council of Ophthalmology. Primary open-angle glaucoma suspect: initial evaluation and follow-up. International Council of Ophthalmology. http://www.icoph.org/dynamic/attachments/resources/icopoagsuspect_2.pdf. 2010. Accessed 06 Feb 2012
  14. Jacobs DS. Open-angle glaucoma: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 31 Jul 2019. Accessed 12 Oct 2015.
  15. Jacobs DS. Open-angle glaucoma: treatment. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 23 Apr 2019. Accessed 12 Oct 2015.
  16. European Glaucoma Society (EGS). Terminology and guidelines for glaucoma. 4th ed. EGS. http://www.eugs.org/eng/EGS_guidelines4.asp. Jun 2014.
  17. Asian Pacific Glaucoma Society. Asia Pacific glaucoma guidelines. APGS. 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Kugler Publications; 2016.
  18. Gross RL, McMillan BD. Current medical management of glaucoma. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2019. 1120-1125. :1120-1125.
  19. International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO). ICO guidelines for glaucoma eye care. ICO. http://www.icoph.org. 2015.
  20. Lee DA, Higginbotham EJ. Glaucoma and its treatment: a review. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005 Apr;62(7):691-699. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/62.7.691. PMID: 15790795
  21. Lusthaus J, Goldberg I. Current management of glaucoma. Med J Aust. 2019 Mar;210(4):180-187. doi: 10.5694/mja2.50020. PMID: 30767238
  22. MacIver S, MacDonald D, Prokopich CL. Screening, diagnosis, and management of open angle glaucoma: an evidence-based guideline for Canadian optometrists. Can J Optometry. 2017;79(Suppl 1).
  23. Ministry of Health Malaysia. Clinical practice guideline: management of glaucoma (2nd edition). http://www.acadmed.org.my. Jun 2017.
  24. National Health and Medical Research Council. NHMRC guidelines for the screening, prognosis, diagnosis, management and prevention of glaucoma 2010. NHMRC. https://www.nhmrc.gov.au. 2010.
  25. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Glaucoma: diagnosis and management. NICE. http://www.nice.org.uk. 01 Nov 2017.
  26. Optometry Australia. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and management of glaucoma. https://www.optometry.org.au. Jul 2016.
  27. Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. Phospholine iodide (echothiophate) [prescribing information]. www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Jul 2018.
  28. Prum BE Jr, Lim MC, Mansberger SL, et al. Primary open-angle glaucoma suspect preferred practice pattern guidelines. Ophthalmology. 2016 Jan;123(1):P112-P151. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.10.055. PMID: 26581560
  29. Prum BE Jr, Rosenberg LF, Gedde SJ, et al. Primary open-angle glaucoma preferred practice pattern guidelines. Ophthalmology. 2016 Jan;123(1):P41-P111. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.10.053. PMID: 26581556
  30. Rupp JD, Kass MA. Ocular hypertension. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2019. 1055-1056. :1055-1056.
  31. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Glaucoma referral and safe discharge a national clinical guideline. SIGN. https://www.sign.ac.uk. Mar 2015. Accessed 19 Sep 2019.
  32. Tan JC, Kaufman PL. Primary open-angle glaucoma. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2019. 1057-1060. Accessed 02 Oct 2019:1057-1060.
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
4 days ago
Children with high dental anxiety are more likely to develop dental diseases, which, in turn, negatively affect the family’s quality of life, a recent study has found.
3 days ago
Exposure to corticosteroids in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) appears to contribute to increased risks of cataract, diabetes and bone fractures, a study has found. Notably, the fracture risk is elevated at low doses, while the risk of adverse events overall is dose-dependent and is reversible.
14 Nov 2019
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD), rivaroxaban monotherapy is noninferior to combination treatment with an antiplatelet therapy in terms of cutting the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, according to data from the AFIRE trial.
4 days ago
Supplementation with oral nano vitamin D appears to moderate disease activity and severity grade of patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), suggests a study, adding that this association is more evident in those achieving a target vitamin D level of 40 ng/mL.