Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, progressive, usually bilateral disease of the eye with an insidious onset.
It is most often characterized by optic nerve damage, defects in the retinal fiber layer and subsequent visual field loss in the absence of underlying ocular disease or congenital abnormalities.
It is generally asymptomatic until it has caused a significant loss of visual field.
Occasionally, patients with very high intraocular pressure may complain of nonspecific headache, discomfort, intermittent blurring of vision or even halos caused by corneal edema.
Inform and involve patients about the status of their condition, the goals and plans for managing their disease, as well as the risks and benefits involved in such interventions
Form a therapeutic alliance with patient and family, and stress that glaucoma is a chronic disease where treatment and follow-up is life-long
Educate patients on how to recognize significant changes in their condition so physicians may be alerted
Provide emotional support and encouragement to help patients deal with possible issues concerning employment, relationships, diminished functional capacities (eg driving, reading, performance of everyday tasks, sports-related activities)
Patients may be referred to support groups or provided counseling
Patients should be taught how to perform nasolacrimal occlusion or eyelid closure when applying topical medications to reduce systemic absorption
Punctual occlusion and eyelid closure for at least 3 minutes
If ≥2 drops are to be instilled, wait at least 5 minutes between drops
Switching from efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF) to the new bictegravir/ emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (BIC/FTC/TAF) regimen maintained high rates of virological suppression in adults who are living with HIV*, according to a study presented at AIDS 2020.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) containing either long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is safe and effective for transgender women (TGW) and cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM), but CAB results in a much lower HIV incidence compared to TDF/FTC, results of the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 083 have shown.
Monthly prophylaxis with the fixed-dose combination of naphthoquine-azithromycin (NQAZ) is well tolerated and confers significant protection against infection with Plasmodium parasites among individuals residing in malaria-endemic areas in Southeast Asia, as shown in the results of a phase III trial.