Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, progressive, usually bilateral disease of the eye with an insidious onset.
It is most often characterized by optic nerve damage, defects in the retinal fiber layer and subsequent visual field loss in the absence of underlying ocular disease or congenital abnormalities.
It is generally asymptomatic until it has caused a significant loss of visual field.
Occasionally, patients with very high intraocular pressure may complain of nonspecific headache, discomfort, intermittent blurring of vision or even halos caused by corneal edema.
Inform and involve patients about the status of their condition, the goals and plans for managing their disease, as well as the risks and benefits involved in such interventions
Form a therapeutic alliance with patient and family, and stress that glaucoma is a chronic disease where treatment and follow-up is life-long
Educate patients on how to recognize significant changes in their condition so physicians may be alerted
Provide emotional support and encouragement to help patients deal with possible issues concerning employment, relationships, diminished functional capacities (eg driving, reading, performance of everyday tasks, sports-related activities)
Patients may be referred to support groups or provided counseling
Patients should be taught how to perform nasolacrimal occlusion or eyelid closure when applying topical medications to reduce systemic absorption
Punctual occlusion and eyelid closure for at least 3 minutes
If ≥2 drops are to be instilled, wait at least 5 minutes between drops
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Spending too much time sitting cannot be good for the body, and rising to one's feet breaks up such a behaviour and yields small, but meaningful, reductions in certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
Use of thyroid hormone therapy does not seem to protect older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism against mortality, but it appears to confer survival benefits to those aged <65 years, results of a study have shown.